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Book Cover
Author Miura, Soichiro.

Title Intestinal immune system / Soichiro Miura, Ryota Hokari, and Shunsuke Komoto
Published [San Rafael, Calif.] : Morgan & Claypool Life Sciences, [2011]
Online access available from:
Colloquium Digital Library of Life Sciences    View Resource Record  


Description 1 online resource (ix, 112 pages) : illustrations (some color)
Series Integrated systems physiology, from molecule to function to disease ; #25
Colloquium series on integrated systems physiology ; #25
Contents 1. Introduction
2. GALT: its structure and formation -- 2.1. Peyer's patches (PPs) -- 2.1.1 Structure and function -- 2.1.2 Formation of PPs -- 2.2 M-cells -- 2.3 Crypt patch -- 2.4 Solitary or isolated lymphoid follicles (SLFs or ILFs) -- 2.5 Colonic patches
3. Intestinal epithelial cells and their immune function -- 3.1 Mucosal surface and mucous barrier -- 3.2 Tight junction and adherent junction -- 3.3 Paneth cells and antimicrobial peptides (host defense peptides) -- 3.4 Other defensive factors related to the surface barrier -- 3.5 Antigen presentation by intestinal epithelial cells
4. Innate immunity in the intestinal mucosa -- 4.1 Pattern recognition through TLRs (toll-like receptors) -- 4.2 Pattern recognition through NOD (NLR) and RIG -- 4.3 Mast cells, eosinophils, and basophils -- 4.4 NKT cells and NK cells -- 4.5 Intestinal macrophages
5. Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs)
6. Lymphoid cell trafficking in intestinal immunology -- 6.1 Lymphocyte migration into intestinal mucosa -- 6.2 Role of retinoic acid in lymphocyte migration -- 6.3 Regulation of lymphocyte emigration from secondary lymphoid tissues and the role of S1P
7. Site of induction of mucosal immunity and antigen presentation by dendritic cells -- 7.1 DCs in intestinal secondary lymphoid tissues -- 7.2 DCs in intestinal lamina propria -- 7.3 Plasmacytoid DCs (PDCs) in the intestine
8. Production of secretory IGA (SIGA)
9. Effector site of acquired immunity and T helper cell subpopulation -- 9.1 TH1 cells -- 9.2 TH2 cells -- 9.3 TH17 cells -- 9.4 TFH cells
10. Immune regulatory system and oral tolerance -- 10.1 Regulatory T cells (Tregs) -- 10.2 Oral tolerance and induction of tolerance by Tregs
11. Food allergy and celiac disease -- 11.1 Food allergy (food intolerance) -- 11.2 Allergic eosinophilic gastroenteritis (AEG) -- 11.3 Celiac disease (gluten-induced enteropathy) -- 11.3.1 Etiology -- 11.3.2 Clinical presentation and diagnosis -- 11.3.3 Treatment
12. Inflammatory bowel diseases -- 12.1 Clinical features of UC and CD -- 12.2 Immunological abnormalities in UC and CD -- 12.2.1 Changes in intestinal bacterial flora -- 12.2.2 Are there any specific immunological disorders for CD vs. UC? -- 12.2.3 Leukocyte recruitment and adhesion molecules in IBD -- 12.2.4 Genetic susceptibility and decreased mucosal regulation -- 12.3 Treatment of UC and CD from the standpoint of immunological disturbances
13. Enteric infection with pathogenic microbes and mucosal immunity -- 13.1 Mucosal immune response by pathogenic bacteria and vaccines -- 13.2 Symbiotic relationship with intestinal flora and its usefulness for immune defense against pathogenic microbes
Summary In the intestine, a unique immunological system that is different from the systemic immune system exists to provide adaptive immunity in response to luminal bacteria and dietary antigens. There are many lymphoid cell aggregates called gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) including Peyer's patches (PPs), which function as important induction sites for the mucosal immune response. M-cells are present in the epithelium of PPs, having a specialized structure for uptake of macromolecules such as bacteria. In addition to GALT, there are abundant lymphoid cells in the intestinal lamina propria, where they mainly play a role as immune effector cells. A strong innate immune system that mainly consists of dendritic cells, macrophages, and [gamma delta]T lymphocytes also exists in the intestinal mucosa to assist the barrier function of intestinal epithelial cells. The intestinal mucosa thus shows a unique morphological structure with many immune cells being present under physiological conditions. This condition is known as "controlled inflammation." These abundant immune cells also have characteristic functions: they are "negatively regulated" and have been educated not to overreact unnecessarily to the intestinal luminal milieu. Main players that control inflammation of the intestinal mucosa include regulatory cytokines and regulatory T cells which induce oral tolerance to intestinal bacteria and food antigens, and the secretory IgA system. The maintenance of unique immunological activity in the intestine is also related to an organized, orchestrated lymphocyte migratory mechanism called the "common mucosal immune system." These negative regulatory mechanisms of the intestinal immune system are disturbed in certain disease conditions, causing the immunocompetent cells to respond to food components and commensal bacteria by becoming activated and to overproduce inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. These disease conditions include food allergies, such as celiac disease, and the inflammatory bowel diseases, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, although their exact etiological mechanisms remain to be revealed
Analysis gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT)
intestinal epithelial cells
intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs)
dendritic cells (DCs)
lymphoid cell trafficking (recirculation, homing)
secretory IgA (SIgA)
oral tolerance
intestinal flora
celiac disease
inflammatory bowel diseases (ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease)
Notes Title from Web page (viewed Oct. 3, 2011)
Bibliography Includes bibliographical references (pages 95-112)
Notes Print version record
Subject Intestines -- Immunology.
Intestines -- immunology.
Intestinal Mucosa -- immunology.
Form Electronic book
Author Hokari, Ryota.
Komoto, Shunsuke.
ISBN 9781615041459 (electronic bk.)
1615041451 (electronic bk.)