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Author Murray, Robin M., 1944-

Title The Epidemiology of Schizophrenia
Published Cambridge Cambridge University Press, 2002
Online access available from:
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Description 1 online resource (472 pages)
Contents Cover -- Half-title -- Title -- Copyright -- Contents -- Contributors -- Preface -- Foreword -- Part I The social epidemiology of schizophrenia -- Introduction -- REFERENCE -- 1 Investigating socioenvironmental influences in schizophrenia: conceptual and design issues -- Effects at the level of the individual -- Effects at the societal level -- Age-period-cohort effects -- Period effects -- Age effects -- Generational effects -- Discriminating age-period-cohort effects -- Life-course effects -- REFERENCES -- 2 Geographical variation in incidence, course and outcome of schizophrenia: a comparison of developing and developed… -- Incidence -- The Ten Country Study -- Caribbean studies -- Nonaffective acute remitting psychosis -- Course and outcome -- International Pilot Study of Schizophrenia -- The Ten Country Study -- International Study of Schizophrenia -- Possible explanations for differences in outcome -- Family relationships -- Informal economies -- Segregation of the mentally ill -- Community cohesion -- Societal basis -- Conclusion -- REFERENCES -- 3 Temporal variation in the incidence, course and outcome of schizophrenia -- Time trends in incidence -- The 19th century: the growth of asylums -- The 20th century -- Examining time trends: age-period-cohort effects -- Declining incidence: period effects? -- Declining incidence: birth cohort effects? -- Time trends in course and outcome -- Conclusions -- REFERENCES -- 4 Urbanization, migration and risk of schizophrenia -- Influence of urban life -- Historical context -- Recent studies -- Timing of exposure: urban birth, upbringing or residence -- Possible explanations for the risk-increasing effect of cities -- Social class -- Obstetric complications -- Infectious disease -- Drug abuse -- Psychosocial stress -- Social isolation -- Summary
Developmental risk factors -- Premorbid social adjustment and personality -- Sensory impairment -- Social isolation -- Structural brain abnormalities -- Early-onset schizophrenia -- Very-late-onset schizophrenia -- Neurocognitive impairment -- Early-onset schizophrenia -- Very-late-onset schizophrenia -- Longitudinal course and outcome -- Early-onset schizophrenia -- Very-late-onset schizophrenia -- Treatment issues -- Early-onset schizophrenia -- Late-onset schizophrenia -- Conclusions -- REFERENCES -- Part III The genetic epidemiology of schizophrenia -- Introduction -- REFERENCE -- 10 The 'classical' genetic epidemiology of schizophrenia -- Investigating whether a genetic effect is present -- Family studies -- Results -- High-risk studies -- Twin studies -- The equal environments assumption -- The risk of receiving the diagnosis is the same in monozygotic and dizygotic twins -- The risk of receiving the diagnosis is the same in twins and singletons -- Monozygotic twins are genetically identical -- Results -- Adoption studies -- Results -- Investigating the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors -- The liability-threshold model -- Correlations in liability -- Biometrical model fitting -- Results -- What is the mode of inheritance? -- What exactly is transmitted? -- Is the genetic liability to schizophrenia specific? -- The 'schizophrenia spectrum' -- 'Splitting' the schizophrenia syndrome -- Subtypes of schizophrenia -- Symptom dimensions -- Age at onset -- Studies of endophenotypic abnormalities in twins and relatives -- Studies of discordant twin pairs -- Phenotypic abnormalities in relatives -- Gene-environment interaction -- Conclusions and implications -- REFERENCES -- 11 Molecular genetics and epidemiology in schizophrenia: a necessary partnership -- The nature of the genetic effect -- Gene mapping strategies
Influence of season of birth on the incidence of schizophrenia -- Possible causes of the season of birth effect -- Maternal exposure to influenza -- Season of birth and the urban effect -- Differences between people with schizophrenia according to their season of birth -- Migration, ethnic minority status and incidence of schizophrenia -- Historical context -- Methodological problems -- Category fallacy -- Misdiagnosis -- Estimating the denominator -- Separating the effects of migration and ethnicity -- A different illness? -- Possible causes of the migration effect -- Genes or environment -- Neurodevelopmental impairment -- Drug abuse -- Social causation -- Urbanization -- Summary -- REFERENCES -- Part II The developmental epidemiology of schizophrenia -- Introduction -- REFERENCES -- 5 Prenatal and perinatal risk factors for schizophrenia -- Historical context -- A neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia -- Prenatal risk factors for schizophrenia -- Time and place of birth -- Prenatal infection as a risk factor for schizophrenia -- Prenatal influenza -- Other prenatal infections -- Prenatal rubella -- Neonatal and early childhood infection -- Prenatal infection: possible mechanisms and future directions -- Other putative prenatal epigenetic risks -- Prenatal famine -- Rhesus incompatibility -- Prenatal stress -- Perinatal risk factors for schizophrenia: obstetric complications -- Case-control studies -- Population-based studies -- Methodological issues -- Statistical power issues -- Timing of exposure -- Specificity -- Meta-analysis of findings from population-based studies -- Conclusions and speculations on the study of pre- and perinatal risk factors for schizophrenia -- Gene-environment interaction -- Programming -- Confounding and proxy variables -- Future directions -- New conceptual approaches to causality
Linkage studies
Longitudinal or life-course approach -- Multilevel approach -- Collaborative ventures -- Acknowledgements -- REFERENCES -- 6 Childhood development and later schizophrenia: evidence from genetic high-risk and birth cohort studies -- Historical context -- Genetic high-risk cohorts -- What do we need to know about childhood developmental markers of schizophrenia from genetic high-risk studies? -- Studies with information from infancy -- New York Infant Development Study -- The Jerusalem Infant Development Study -- Neurobehavioural assessments -- Copenhagen Obstetric High Risk Project -- Studies with information from middle childhood -- Israeli High Risk Study -- Circumstances of rearing and later psychopathology -- Other childhood predictors of later schizophrenia -- Protective factors -- The New York High Risk Project -- Neuropsychological predictors -- Behavioural predictors -- Cognitive predictors: intelligence -- Studies with information from adolescence -- Copenhagen High Risk Study -- Finnish Adoptive Family Study of Schizophrenia -- The Edinburgh High Risk Study -- Summary of the data on childhood development from the high-risk studies -- General population birth cohort studies -- Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development (1946 British birth cohort) -- The National Child Development Study (1958 British birth cohort) -- 1966 Northern Finland Birth Cohort -- Helsinki 1951-1960 Birth Cohort -- Swedish Conscript Cohort -- Israeli Draft Board Conscript Cohort -- The National Collaborative Perinatal Project: the Philadelphia cohort -- Childhood developmental variables as predictors of schizophrenia or sibling status -- Motor variables -- Cognitive functioning -- Language abnormalities -- Behavioural deviance -- The role of obstetric complications -- The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Developmental Survey
Summary of information on developmental markers in schizophrenia from birth cohort studies -- Conclusions -- What is the nature of the relationship? -- Acknowledgements -- REFERENCES -- 7 Prodrome, onset and early course of schizophrenia -- The prodrome -- Historical context -- Assessment of prodromal signs and symptoms -- Phase models of early illness course -- Prospective validation of prodromal and attenuated psychotic symptoms -- Onset and early course -- Defining onset and early course -- Assessment of onset -- Systematic retrospective analysis of onset and early course: the ABC Study -- Stages of illness onset -- Gender differences -- Possible explanations for gender difference -- What symptoms mark the onset of schizophrenia? -- Early illness course as a prognostic indicator of later course -- Comorbidity of schizophrenia and alcohol and drug abuse -- Implications for studies using onset as a design variable -- Conclusions -- REFERENCES -- 8 The value of first-episode studies in schizophrenia -- Advantages of first-episode studies -- Studies of incident first-episode cases -- Time trends in incidence -- Risk factors and comorbidity -- Gender effects -- Course and outcome -- Abnormalities in cerebral structure and function at the time of first presentation -- Interpretation of the changes -- Static versus progressive change? -- Methodological issues in first-episode studies -- Control groups -- Definition of the first episode -- Study population -- The diagnostic dilemma -- Conclusions and future directions -- REFERENCES -- 9 Schizophrenia at the extremes of life -- Methodological concerns -- Prevalence rates -- Early-onset schizophrenia -- Very-late-onset schizophrenia -- Gender differences -- Phenomenology -- Early-onset schizophrenia -- Very-late-onset schizophrenia -- Risk factors -- Genetic -- Pregnancy and birth complications
Summary A comprehensive epidemiological overview of schizophrenia including findings from social, genetic, developmental and classical epidemiology
Notes Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other sources
Subject Schizophrenia -- Epidemiology.
Form Electronic book
Author Cannon, Mary, 1965-
Jones, Peter B
Susser, Ezra
Van Os, Jim
ISBN 9781139146333