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Author Alpern, Robert J.

Title Seldin and Giebisch's The Kidney : Physiology and Pathophysiology
Edition Fifth edition
Published Saint Louis : Elsevier Science, 2012
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Description 1 online resource (3299 pages)
Contents Front Cover -- Seldin and Giebisch's the Kidney -- Copyright Page -- Dedication -- Contents -- Foreword -- Preface -- List of Contributors -- I: Epithelial and Nonepithelial Transport and Regulation -- 1 Epithelial Cell Structure and Polarity -- Introduction -- The Nature and Physiologic Implications of Epithelial Polarity -- Epithelial Cell Structure: Morphology and Physiology -- The Junctional Complex -- The Apical Microvillar Surface -- The Basolateral Plasma Membrane -- The Basement Membrane -- Biogenesis of Epithelial Polarity -- In Vitro Systems -- Polarization Mechanisms: Spatial Cues from Cell Adhesion -- Polarization Mechanisms: The Intrinsic Polarization Machinery -- Sorting Pathways -- Technical Approaches -- Sodium Pump Targeting -- Regulation of Renal Transport Protein Function by Endocytosis and Recycling -- Sorting Signals -- Cell Type-Specific Sorting: Patterns -- Sorting: Mechanisms -- Tyrosine-Based Motifs and Adaptors -- Glycosphingolipid-Rich Membrane Domains -- PDZ Domain-containing Proteins -- Epithelial Cell Polarity and Renal Disease -- Carcinogenesis -- Ischemic Injury -- Genetic Diseases of Proximal Tubule Apical Endocytosis: Dent's Disease and the Oculo Cerebral Renal Syndrome of Lowe -- Polycystic Kidney Disease -- Acknowledgments -- References -- 2 Mechanisms of Ion Transport across Cell Membranes -- Introduction -- The Cell Interior and Extracellular Fluid Have Different Ionic Compositions -- The Plasma Membrane: Structure Related to Function -- The Plasma Membrane is Selectively Permeable -- Mechanisms of ion TRANSPORT -- Ion Transport can be Active or Passive -- Active and Passive Transport Processes can be Evaluated by Considering Direction of Electrochemical Potential Difference (D... -- Pathways and Mechanisms of Passive Transport -- Diffusion and Electrodiffusion -- Electrodiffusion -- Mediated Transport
Mechanism of Water Permeation in AQPs -- Certain Aquaporins are Permeable to Solutes and Perhaps to Physiologic Gases -- Regulation of AQP-Mediated Water Permeability -- Other Membrane Proteins May Contribute to Water Transport -- Do Co-Transporters Perform Active Water Transport? -- Summary and Conclusions -- Water Transport in Epithelia -- Characteristics of Transepithelial Water Transport -- Epithelia Have Very Different Water Permeabilities -- Two Types of Transepithelial Water Transport -- Solute-Solvent Coupling -- Three-Compartment Models Define the Problem -- Standing-Gradient Hypothesis Explains Near-Isosmotic Fluid Transport, but is Difficult to Reconcile with Current Experiment... -- Near-Isosmotic Fluid Transport Model Solves the Difficulties of Three-Compartment Models -- Solute Recirculation in the Paracellular Pathway in Theory Explains Truly Isosmotic Transepithelial Fluid Transport -- In Certain Epithelia Asymmetries in Solute Composition Play Significant Roles -- Pathways for Transepithelial Water Transport are also Controversial -- Transcellular Osmotic Water Transport is Supported by High Cell-Membrane Pos -- Paracellular Osmotic Water Transport is Supported by Indirect Arguments -- Summary and Conclusions -- References -- 5 Cell Volume Control -- Cell Volume Regulatory Mechanisms -- Cell Volume Regulatory Ion Transport -- Ions in Cell Volume Maintenance -- Ion Release Following Cell Swelling -- Ion Uptake upon Cell Shrinkage -- Osmolytes -- Osmolyte Accumulation by Metabolism -- Osmolyte Accumulation by Transport -- Osmolyte Release -- Metabolic Pathways Sensitive to Cell Volume -- Protein and Glycogen Metabolism -- Glucose and Amino Acid Metabolism -- Oxidative Metabolism -- Other Metabolic Pathways -- Cell Volume-Sensitive Genes -- Signaling of Cell Volume Regulation -- Intracellular Ca2+ -- Cytoskeleton
Protein Phosphorylation -- Phosphatidylinositol 4,5,-Bisphosphate -- Phospholipase A2 and Eicosanoids -- pH of Acidic Cellular Compartments -- Others -- Challenges and functions affecting cell Volume -- Alterations of Extracellular Fluid Osmolarity and Composition -- Osmolarity -- Extracellular K+ Concentration -- H+ and HCO3- Concentration -- Organic Acids -- Urea, Drugs, and Toxins -- Functional States Affecting Cell Volume Control -- Energy Depletion -- Transport -- Influence of Hormones and Transmitters on Cell Volume -- Neuromuscular Excitability -- Metabolism -- Cell Proliferation -- Migration -- Apoptotic Cell Death -- Necrotic Cell Death -- References -- 6 Solute Transport, Energy Consumption, and Production in the Kidney -- Introduction -- Energy Consumption -- Na Transport and Energy Consumption in the Kidney -- Na+ Transport and O2 Consumption -- Heterogeneity in Na+ Transport Efficiency among Nephron Segments -- Proximal Tubule -- Thick Ascending Limb of Henle -- CCD -- Energy Cost of Primary Active Transport -- P-type-ATPases -- Na+,K+-ATPase -- Ca2+-ATPase -- H+,K+-ATPase -- V-type ATPases -- ABC Superfamily -- Comparison of Ion Transporting ATPase Activities and QO2 along the Nephron -- Metabolic Basis in the Kidney -- Energy Production Pathway in the Kidney -- Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation -- Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle -- Ý-Oxidation of Fatty Acids -- Ketone Body Metabolism -- Glycolysis -- Gluconeogenesis -- Metabolic Parameters along Nephron Segments -- Preference of Metabolic Substrates in Nephron Segments -- Substrate Preference Along the Nephron Segments -- Proximal Tubule (PT) -- Thin Descending Limb of the Loop of Henle (TDL) -- Cortical Thick Ascending Limb of the Loop of Henle (CTAL) -- Medullary Thick Ascending Limb of the Loop of Henle (MTAL) -- Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT) -- Cortical Collecting Duct (CCD)
Structure and Mechanism of Action of V-ATPases -- Isoforms -- Renal Isoforms of the V-ATPase -- Multiple Functions of the V-ATPASE in the Kidney -- Expression in the Kidney -- Bicarbonate Absorption -- Role of the V-ATPase in Intercalated Cells -- Role of the V-ATPase in Endocytosis in Renal Epithelial Cells -- References -- 4 Mechanisms of Water Transport Across Cell Membranes and Epithelia -- Introduction -- Basic Principles -- Osmotic Equilibrium is a Balance of Osmotic and Hydrostatic Forces -- Osmotic Water Flows Across Lipid and Porous Membranes have Different Properties -- Osmotic Water Flow Across Lipid Membranes -- Osmotic Water Flow Across a Porous Membrane -- Large Pores -- Single-File Pore -- Comparison of Diffusion and Osmotic Permeability Coefficients Reveals Whether Water Permeates Lipid Bilayer or Pores -- Porous Membrane -- Unstirred Layers are a Major Source of Artifacts in Water Permeability Measurements -- Unstirred-Layer Effects on Measurement of Pdw -- Unstirred-Layer Effects on the Measurement of Pos -- Solute Reflection Coefficients Denote Effective Osmolality of a Solution vis-à-vis a Membrane -- Lipid Membrane -- Porous Membrane -- Solvent Drag Can Account for Uphill Solute Transport -- Water Transport Across the Cell Membrane -- Intracellular Water Behaves Similar to Water in Free Solution -- The Osmotic Behavior of Cells is not Ideal -- Net Water Transport Across Membranes of Animal Cells is Osmotic -- Cell Volume is Determined by the Amount of Cell Solute and the Extracellular Osmolality -- Water Permeability of the Plasma Membrane Varies Considerably Among Cell Types -- Pathways for Water Transport Across Cell Membranes -- Water Pores Determine High Cell-Membrane Water Permeability -- High POS/Pd -- Low Arrhenius Activation Energy -- Sensitivity to Hg -- Flux Interactions -- Cell Membrane Water Pores are Aquaporins
Thermodynamics of Mediated Passive Transport -- Kinetics of Mediated Passive Transport -- Modes of Coupled Transport -- Pathways and Mechanisms of Active Transport -- Primary Active Transport -- Secondary Active Transport -- Ion Transport PROTEINS -- Pores -- Channels -- K+-Selective Channels -- Na+-Selective Channels -- Cl- Selective Channels -- Carriers -- Pumps -- Similarities and Differences between Ion Transport Proteins -- References -- 3 Renal Ion-Translocating ATPases -- P-ATPases -- Structure and Function of Ca2+-ATPases (SERCA and PMCA) -- Structure of Na,K-ATPase and H,K-ATPase -- Catalytic Ü-Subunit -- Structure -- Isoforms -- Ý-Subunit -- Isoforms -- Structure and Ü-Ý Interaction -- Functional Role -- FXYD Proteins -- Isoforms -- Function and Interaction with Ü- and Ý-Subunits -- Properties of Na,K-ATPase and H,K-ATPase -- Ion Transport -- Pharmacology -- Genetics -- Regulation of Na,K-ATPase -- Substrates -- Post-Translational Modifications -- Synthesis and Degradation -- Membrane Trafficking -- Interaction with the Cytoskeleton -- New Physiological Functions of Na,k-ATPase -- Cell Signaling by Na,K-ATPase -- Role of Na,K-ATPase in Cell Adhesion -- Na,K-ATPase in the Kidney -- Regulation of Na,K-ATPase in Proximal Tubule -- Control of Na,K-ATPase by Insulin -- Control of Na,K-ATPase by Dopamine and Parathormone -- Angiotensin II Exerts a Biphasic Effect on Na,K-ATPase -- Regulation of Na,K-ATPase in Thick Ascending Limb of Henle's Loop -- Control of Na,K-ATPase in Collecting Duct -- Aldosterone Induces a Biphasic Stimulation of Na,K-ATPase -- Vasopressin Stimulates Na,K-ATPase -- Na,K-ATPase Expression is Regulated by Sodium Availability -- Induction of Na,K-ATPase is Associated with Sodium Retention in Nephrotic Syndrome and Liver Cirrhosis -- H,K-ATPases in Kidney -- Gastric H,K-ATPase -- Colonic H,K-ATPase -- V-ATPase
Summary A classic nephrology reference for over 25years, Seldin and Giebisch's The Kidney, is the acknowledged authority on renal physiology and pathophysiology. In this 5th edition, such new and powerful disciplines as genetics and cell biology have been deployed to deepen and widen further the explanatory framework. Not only have previous chapters been extensively updated, but new chapters have been added to incorporate additional disciplines. Individual chapters, for example, now provide detailed treatment of the significance of cilia; the role of stem cells is now given special consideration. Finally, there has been a significant expansion of the section of pathophysiology, incorporating the newer findings of cell biology and genetics. If you research the development of normal renal function or the mechanisms underlying renal disease, Seldin and Giebisch's The Kidney is your number one source for information. Offers the most comprehensive coverage on the market of fluid and electrolyte regulation and dysregulation in 85 completely revised chapters and 10 new chapters Includes 4sections, 62 chapters, devoted to regulation and disorders of acid-base homeostasis, and epithelial and nonepithelial transport regulation Includes foreword by Donald Seldin and Gerhard Giebisch, world renowned names in nephrology and editors of the previous three editions
Notes Outer Medullary Collecting Duct (OMCD)
Subject Kidneys -- Growth.
Form Electronic book
Author Caplan, Michael J.
Moe, Orson W.
ISBN 0123814626
9780123814630 (electronic bk.)