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Book Cover
Author Harremoes, Paul

Title The Precautionary Principle in the 20th Century : Late Lessons from Early Warnings
Published Hoboken : Taylor and Francis, 2013
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Description 1 online resource (289 pages)
Contents Cover; The Precautionary Principle in the 20th Century; Title Page; Copyright Page; Table of Contents; List of figures, tables and boxes; Foreword; Preface; Acknowledgements; List of acronyms and abbreviations; 1 Introduction; Late lessons from early warnings: an approach to learning from history; What is the 'precautionary principle'?; An early use of the precautionary principle: London, 1854; Forestalling disasters: integrating science and public policy; 2 Fisheries: taking stock; Early warnings; 19th-century British fisheries; Californian sardine fishery, 1920s to 1942; Newfoundland cod
7 Halocarbons, the ozone layer and the precautionary principleOverview; Early history; The 1930s: the CFC industry is born; The 1970s: the seeds of doubt; The Montreal Protocol and the ozone hole; Late lessons; 8 The DES story: long-term consequences of prenatal exposure; Introduction; Optimistic beginnings; Tragic consequences; DES ineffective for prevention of miscarriage; Assessing the extent of the damage; Lessons from the DES story; 9 Antimicrobials as growth promoters: resistance to common sense; Introduction; The first early warning; Subsequent action or inaction
Advantages and disadvantages of the use of growth promotersConclusions and lessons for the future; 10 Sulphur dioxide: from protection of human lungs to remote lake restoration; Dead fish, dying forests; The 1985 CLRTAP Protocol and beyond; Late lessons; 11 MTBE in petrol as a substitute for lead; Introduction; Lead in petrol; The MTBE case; The benefits of MTBE; The impacts of MTBE; Responses; Present trends; Discussion in relation to the precautionary principle; Conclusions; 12 Early warnings of chemical contamination of the Great Lakes; The first significant early warnings
Early warnings on asbestos cancersEarly, devastating warnings about mesothelioma cancer; Actions and inactions by regulatory authorities and others; The costs and benefits of actions and inactions; What are the lessons of the asbestos story?; 6 PCBs and the precautionary principle; Introduction; Growing evidence of persistence, presence and toxicity; Action from industry and governments in the 1970s; Scientific understanding becomes more sophisticated; Government action in the 1980s and 1990s; Routes of environmental exposure; The most recent PCB accident; Conclusions
Precaution becomes explicitThe ecosystem approach; Late lessons; 3 Radiation: early warnings, late effects; X-rays; Radioactivity and radioactive materials; Early moves towards control of exposure; The post-war watershed: justification, optimisation, limitation; Conclusions; 4 Benzene: a historical perspective on the American and European occupational setting; Early warnings; Actions and inactions; Discussion; Conclusions and lessons for the future; 5 Asbestos: from 'magic' to malevolent mineral; Introduction; The first 'early warnings' of asbestosis and some responses
Summary The precautionary principle is widely seen as fundamental to successful policies for sustainability. It has been cited in international courts and trade disputes between the USA and the EU, and invoked in a growing range of political debates. Understanding what it can and cannot achieve is therefore crucial. This volume looks back over the last century to examine the role the principle played or could have played, in a range of major and avoidable public disasters. From detailed investigation of how each disaster unfolded, what the impacts were and what measures were adopted, the authors draw
Notes Date and nature of subsequent action or inaction
Print version record
Form Electronic book
Author Gee, David.
Keys, Jane.
MacGarvin, Malcom
Stirling, Andy.
Vaz, Sofia Guedes.
Wynne, Brian
ISBN 1134207786