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Author Postle, Bradley R., author

Title Essentials of cognitive neuroscience / Bradley R. Postle
Published Chichester, West Sussex, UK ; Malden, MA, USA : Wiley Blackwell, 2015
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Contents Machine-generated contents note: 1. Introduction and History -- Key Themes -- A Brief (And Selective) History -- Localization of function vs. mass action -- The first scientifically-rigorous demonstrations of localization of function -- The localization of motor functions -- The localization of visual perception -- The localization of speech -- What Is A Brain And What Does It Do? -- Looking Ahead To The Development Of Cognitive Neuroscience -- End-Of-Chapter Questions -- References -- Other Sources Used -- Further Reading -- 2. The Brain -- Key Themes -- Pep Talk -- Gross Anatomy -- The Cerebral Cortex -- The Neuron -- Electrical and chemical properties of the neuron -- How neurons communicate: the action potential -- How neurons communicate: the post-synaptic consequences of neurotransmitter release -- Different neurotransmitters and different receptors can produce different effects on the post-synaptic cell -- Housekeeping in the synaptic cleft -- Neuroanatomical techniques exploit the physiology of the neuron -- Oscillatory Fluctuations In The Membrane Potential -- Neurons are never truly "at rest" -- Synchronous oscillation -- Complicated, And Complex -- End-Of-Chapter Questions -- References -- Other Sources Used -- Further Reading -- 3. Sensation and Perception of Visual Signals -- Key Themes -- The Dominant Sense In Primates -- Organization Of The Visual System -- The visual field -- The retinotopic organization of primary visual cortex -- Information Processing In Primary Visual Cortex -- Bottom-Up Feature Detection -- The V1 neuron as feature detector -- Columns, hypercolumns, and pinwheels -- Behind the pinwheel -- Information Processing In Primary Visual Cortex -- Interactivity -- Feedforward and feedback projections of V1 -- Corticothalamic loops, centre-surround inhibition, and signal-to-noise ratio -- Setting the state of thalamic neurons: tonic mode vs. burst mode -- Circularity? It can depend on your perspective -- The relation between visual processing and the brain's physiological state -- Where Does Sensation End? Where Does Perception Begin? -- End-Of-Chapter Questions -- References -- Other Sources Used -- Further Reading -- 4. Audition and Somatosensation -- Key Themes -- Apologia -- Audition -- Auditory sensation -- What is it that we hear? -- Mechanical transmission and neural transduction -- Spectral decomposition performed by the basilar membrane -- Auditory perception -- The auditory evoked response -- The organization of auditory cortex -- Top-down control of auditory transduction -- Age-related hearing loss -- Adieu to audition -- Somatosensation -- Transduction of mechanical and thermal energy, and of pain -- Somatotopy -- Somatotopy in the rodent: barrel cortex -- Somatosensory plasticity -- Use-dependent plasticity -- The brain mimics the body -- Mechanisms of somatosensory plasticity -- Phantom limbs and phantom pain -- A hypothesized mechanism -- Helpful or harmful? -- Proprioception -- Adieu to sensation -- End-Of-Chapter Questions -- References -- Other Sources Used -- Further Reading -- 5. The Visual System -- Key Themes -- Familiar Principles And Processes, Applied To Higher-Level Representations -- Two Parallel Pathways -- A diversity of projections from V1 -- A functional dissociation of visual perception of what an object is vs. where it is located -- Interconnectedness within and between the two pathways -- The Organization And Functions Of The Ventral Visual Processing Stream -- Hand cells, face cells, and grandmother cells -- Electrophysiological recordings in temporal cortex -- Broader implications of visual properties of temporal cortex neurons -- A hierarchy of stimulus representation -- Combination coding, an alternative to the "grandmother cell" -- A critical role for feedback in the ventral visual processing stream -- Visual illusions provide evidence for top-down influences -- Top-down feedback can disambiguate the visual scene -- Taking Stock -- End-Of-Chapter Questions -- References -- Other Sources Used -- Further Reading -- 6. Spatial Cognition and Attention -- Key Themes -- Unilateral Neglect: A Fertile Source Of Models Of Spatial Cognition And Attention -- Unilateral neglect: a clinicoanatomical primer -- Hypotheses arising from clinical observations of neglect -- The Functional Anatomy Of The Dorsal Stream -- Mapping what vs. where in humans with positron emission tomography -- Detecting spatial maps with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) -- Coordinate transformations to guide action with perception -- Extracellular electrophysiological studies of monkeys -- Microstimulation of PPC produces eye movements (and more) -- From Parietal Space To Medial-Temporal Place -- Place cells in the hippocampus -- How does place come to be represented in the hippocampus? -- From place to long-term memory? -- The Neurophysiology Of Sensory Attention -- A day at the circus -- Attending to locations vs. attending to objects -- Mechanisms of spatial attention -- Contradictory findings from fMRI vs. EEG? -- Effects of attention on neuronal activity -- Spatial attention -- Object-based attention -- Turning Our Attention To The Future -- End-Of-Chapter Questions -- References -- Other Sources Used -- Further Reading -- 7. Skeletomotor Control -- Key Themes -- The Organization Of The Motor System -- The anatomy of the motor system -- The corticospinal tract -- The cortico-cerebellar circuit -- The cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic circuits -- Functional Principles Of Motor Control -- The biomechanics of motor control -- Muscles behave like springs -- Motor computations in the spinal cord -- Motor cortex -- The motor homunculus -- The neurophysiology of movement -- EEG and LFP correlates -- Single unit activity reveals population coding -- Motor Control Outside Of Motor Cortex -- Parietal cortex: guiding how we move -- Cerebellum: motor learning, balance, .
and mental representation? -- Cerebellar circuitry -- Cerebellar functions -- Basal ganglia -- A subcortical gate on cortical activity -- The role of dopamine -- Cognitive Functions Of The Motor System -- It's All About Action -- End-Of-Chapter Questions -- References -- Other Sources Used -- Further Reading -- 8. Oculomotor Control and the Control of Attention -- Key Themes -- Attention And Action -- Whys And Hows Of Eye Movements -- Three categories of eye movements -- The Organization Of The Oculomotor System -- An overview of the circuitry -- The superior colliculus -- The posterior system -- The frontal eye field -- The supplementary eye field -- The Control Of Eye Movements, And Of Attention, In Humans -- Human oculomotor control -- Human attentional control -- The endogenous control of attention -- The exogenous control of attention -- The Control Of Attention Via The Oculomotor System -- Covert attention -- Covert attention as motor preparation? -- Empirical evidence for covert attention as motor preparation -- Where's the attentional controller? -- The reentry hypothesis -- Are Oculomotor Control And Attentional Control Really The "Same Thing"? -- The "method of visual inspection" -- "Prioritized Maps of Space in Human Frontoparietal Cortex" -- Of Labels And Mechanisms -- End-Of-Chapter Questions -- References -- Other Sources Used -- Further Reading -- 9. Visual Object Recognition and Knowledge -- Key Themes -- Visual Agnosia -- Apperceptive agnosia -- Associative agnosia -- Prosopagnosia -- Computational Models Of Visual Object Recognition -- Two neuropsychological traditions -- Cognitive neuropsychology-influenced models -- Critiques of cognitive neuropsychology-influenced models -- Parallel distributed processing (PDP)-based models offer a neurally-plausible alternative for modelling cognitive processes and architectures -- The cognitive neuroscience revolution in visual cognition -- Category Specificity In The Ventral Stream? -- Are faces special? -- "The Guns of August" -- Questions raised by the Kanwisher et al. (1997) findings -- Perceptual expertise -- Greeble expertise -- Evidence for a high-degree of specificity for many categories in ventral occipitotemporal cortex -- Evidence for highly-distributed category representation in ventral occipitotemporal cortex -- MVPA challenges models of modular category specificity -- Demonstrating necessity -- Reconciling The Irreconcilable -- End-Of-Chapter Questions -- References -- Other Sources Used -- Further Reading -- 10. Neural Bases of Memory -- Key Themes -- Plasticity, Learning, And Memory -- The Case Of H.M. -- Bilateral medial temporal lobectomy -- The global amnesic syndrome -- The organization of memory -- The subjective experience of amnesia -- Hippocampus vs. MTL? -- Association Through Synaptic Modification -- The example of Pavlovian conditioning -- Hebbian plasticity -- Long-term potentiation -- Hippocampal circuitry and its electrophysiological investigation -- The NMDA glutamate receptor as coincidence detector -- Multiple stages of synaptic strengthening -- The necessity of NMDA channels for long-term memory formation -- How Might The Hippocampus Work? -- Fast-encoding hippocampus vs. slow- encoding cortex -- Episodic memory for sequences -- Episodic memory as an evolutionary elaboration of navigational processing -- What Are The Cognitive Functions Of The Hippocampus? -- Standard anatomical model -- Challenges to the standard anatomical model -- Newer lesioning methods -- Perceptually-challenging behavioral tasks
Note continued: "New roles" for the hippocampus? -- Consolidation -- To Consolidate -- End-Of-Chapter Questions -- References -- Other Sources Used -- Further Reading -- 11. Declarative Long-Term Memory -- Key Themes -- The Cognitive Neuroscience Of LTM -- Encoding -- Neuroimaging the hippocampus -- Novelty-driven "encoding" -- Subsequent memory effects in the PFC and MTL -- Uneven evidence for encoding-related activity in hippocampus -- Incidental encoding into LTM during a short-term memory task -- Signal intensity-based analysis of the subsequent memory effect -- A short-term memory buffer to bridge the temporal gap between to-be-associated events -- Functional connectivity-based analysis of the subsequent memory effect -- The Hippocampus In Spatial Memory Experts -- Retrieval -- Retrieval without awareness -- Documenting contextual re-instatement in the brain -- The dynamics of multivariate state changes underlying behaviour -- Implications for "mind-reading" well, "brain reading" -- Familiarity vs. recollection -- Dual-process models -- Dual processes of memory retrieval in the rodent -- Knowledge -- End-Of-Chapter Questions -- References -- Other Sources Used -- Further Reading -- 12. Semantic Long-Term Memory -- Key Themes -- Knowledge In The Brain -- Definitions And Basic Facts -- Category-Specific Deficits Following Brain Damage -- Animacy, or function? -- A PDP model of modality-specificity -- The domain-specific knowledge hypothesis -- The Neuroimaging Of Knowledge -- The meaning, and processing, of words -- An aside about the role of language in semantics and the study of semantics -- PET scanning of object knowledge -- Knowledge retrieval or lexical access? -- Knowledge retrieval or mental imagery? -- The Progressive Loss Of Knowledge -- Primary Progressive Aphasia or Semantic Dementia, what's in a name? -- Non-verbal deficits in fluent primary progressive aphasia? -- The locus of damage in fluent primary progressive aphasia? -- Distal effects of neurodegeneration -- Entente cordiale -- Nuance And Challenges -- End-Of-Chapter Questions -- References -- Other Sources Used -- Further Reading -- 13. Short-Term and Working Memory -- Key Themes -- "Prolonged Perception" Or "Activated LTM?" -- Definitions -- Elevated, Sustained Activity -- Early focus on role of PFC in the control of STM -- Single-unit delay-period activity in PFC and thalamus -- The implications, and influence, of these first studies of PFC electrophysiology -- Working memory -- The extracellular electrophysiology of "working memory" -- A third(?) generation of PFC lesion studies -- STM vs
working memory -- A Brave New World Of Multivariate Data Analysis -- The tradition of univariate analyses -- MVPA of fMRI -- Increased sensitivity reveals delay-period storage in "silent" areas -- Increased specificity reveals absence of stimulus information in elevated delay-period activity -- The neural bases of STM -- Retrospective MVPA of single-unit extracellular recordings -- A population-level analysis of "Dynamic Coding for Cognitive Control in Prefrontal Cortex" -- Three-Quarters Of A Century -- End-Of-Chapter Questions -- References -- Other Sources Used -- Further Reading -- 14. Cognitive Control -- Key Themes -- The Lateral Frontal-Lobe Syndrome -- Environmental dependency syndrome -- Perseveration -- Electrophysiology of the frontal-lobe syndrome -- Integration? -- Models Of Cognitive Control -- Developmental cognitive neuroscience -- The A-not-B error -- Is the A-not-B error a failure of working memory? -- Generalizing beyond development -- What makes the PFC special? -- Properties of the PFC -- Influence of the DA reward signal on the functions of PFC -- Combining a reward prediction error signal with a flexible PFC to overcome perseveration -- Neural Activity Relating To Cognitive Control -- Error monitoring -- The ERN/Ne -- Performance monitoring and the dorsomedial frontal cortex -- Oscillatory synchrony -- Thalamic control of cortical synchrony -- Where Is The Controller? -- End-Of-Chapter Questions -- References -- Other Sources Used -- Further Reading -- 15. Decision-Making -- Key Themes -- Between Perception And Action -- Perceptual Decision Making -- Judging the direction of motion -- Microstimulation of MT -- LIP -- Perceptual decision-making in humans -- Value-Based Decision-Making -- The influence of expected value on activity in LIP -- Decision variables emergent from motor plans -- Common currency in the omPFC -- Transitivity, value transitivity, and menu invariance -- Evidence from the non-human primate -- Evidence from humans -- vmPFC or OFC? -- Has neuroeconomics taught us anything about the economics of decision-making? -- Foraging -- I Can't Decide! -- Next Stop -- End-Of-Chapter Questions -- References -- Other Sources Used -- Further Reading -- 16. Social Behaviour -- Key Themes -- Trustworthiness: A Preamble -- Delaying gratification: a social influence on a "frontal" class of behaviours -- The Role Of VMPFC In The Control Of Social Cognition -- Phineas Gage -- Horrible accident -- Sequelae -- Contemporary behavioural neurology -- Linking neurological and psychiatric approaches to social behaviour -- Theory Of Mind -- The ToM network -- Two asides about anterior paracingulate cortex -- The temporoparietal junction (TPJ) -- Challenge to the specificity of TPJ for ToM -- False beliefs (?) about Rebecca Saxe's mind -- fMRI with higher spatial resolution -- rTMS of TPJ during moral judgments -- Moral judgments, TPJ, and autism spectrum disorder -- A final assessment of the role of TPJ in ToM mentalization -- Observational Learning -- Trustworthiness, Revisited -- End-Of-Chapter Questions -- References -- Other Sources Used -- Further Reading -- 17. Emotion -- Key Themes -- Emotion Processing And Mental Health -- Trustworthiness Revisited -- Again -- A role for the amygdala in the processing of trustworthiness -- Neuropsychological evidence -- fMRI evidence -- Implicit information processing by the amygdala -- The Amygdala -- Kl├╝ver-Bucy syndrome -- Pavlovian fear conditioning -- Induction -- Distinguishing avoidance learning from fear conditioning -- Emotional content in declarative memories -- Pharmacological interference with norepinephrine -- Emotional declarative memory in patients with amygdala lesions -- The amygdala's influence on other brain systems -- What emotions does the amygdala process? -- What Is An Emotion? -- The Control Of Emotions -- Extinction -- Research in the rodent -- The roles of midline frontal cortex -- Fear conditioning and extinction in the human -- "Real-time," volitional control of emotions -- The good and the bad of emotion regulation -- The Amygdala As Affective Hub -- End-Of-Chapter Questions -- References -- Other Sources Used -- Further Reading -- 18. Language -- Key Themes -- A System Of Remarkable Complexity -- Wernicke-Lichtheim: The Classical Core Language Network -- The aphasias -- The functional relevance of the connectivity of the network -- Speech Perception -- Segregation of the speech signal -- The elements of language -- The speech signal -- Neural correlates of speech perception -- Dual routes for speech processing -- Grammar -- Genetics -- Rules in the brain? -- Broca's area -- The anatomy and connectivity of Broca's area -- Functional accounts of Broca's area -- The electrophysiology of grammar -- Speech Production -- A psycholinguistic model of production -- Forward models for the control of production -- Necessary neural substrates? -- All Together Now -- "Arousing Novel Ideas And Subtle Perceptions And Judgments"...With The Written Word -- End-Of-Chapter Questions -- References -- Other Sources Used -- Further Reading -- 19. Consciousness -- Key Themes -- The Most Complex Object In The Universe -- Different Approaches To The Problem -- The Physiology Of Consciousness -- Neurological syndromes -- Coma -- Vegetative state/UWS -- Recovery of consciousness from coma or UWS -- Two dimensions along which consciousness can vary -- Sleep -- Anaesthesia -- Studying anaesthesia with TMS/EEG -- Studying anesthesia with surface EEG and deep-brain EEG -- Summary across physiological studies -- Brain Functions Supporting Conscious Perception -- Are we conscious of activity in early sensory cortex? -- What intrinsic factors influence conscious visual perception? -- Bottom-up and top-down influences on conscious visual perception -- The role of re-entrant signals to VI -- Manipulating extrinsic factors to study conscious vs. unconscious vision -- Theories Of Consciousness -- Global Workspace Theory -- Recurrent Processing Theory -- Integrated Information Theory -- A practical application of Integrated Information Theory -- UPdating the consciousness graPH -- End-Of-Chapter Questions -- References -- Other Sources Used -- Further Reading
Summary Essentials of Cognitive Neuroscience guides undergraduate and early-stage graduate students with no previous neuroscientific background through the fundamental principles and themes in a concise, organized, and engaging manner. It is designed to provide students with a foundation to understand primary literature, recognize current controversies in the field, and engage in discussions on cognitive neuroscience and its future
Presented in full colour, it contains a range of pedagogical features to aid student learning and understanding. Unique to this text, important experimental methods and techniques are introduced in individual Methodology Boxes throughout the text, tying them explicitly to the scientific questions that motivate their use. The text is accompanied by a robust Web site with resources for students and instructors, including a 3-D interactive brain model, multiple choice and essay questions, Web resources, experiment videos, how-to videos for fMRI and EEG data collection and analysis, and innovative video narratives in which key points from each chapter are explained by experts in these areas of research
Providing fundamental knowledge without an avalanche of overwhelming data, this textbook prepares students to understand and discuss the dynamic field of cognitive neuroscience in the twenty-first-century. --Book Jacket
Bibliography Includes bibliographical references and index
Notes Online resource; title from digital title page (viewed on March 10, 2015)
Subject Clinical neuropsychology -- Textbooks.
Cognitive neuroscience -- Textbooks.
Genre/Form Textbooks.
Textbooks.
Form Electronic book
ISBN 1118468066 (paperback)
1118468260 (electronic book)
1322641145 (MyiLibrary)
9781118468067 (paperback)
9781118468265 (electronic book)
9781322641140 (MyiLibrary)
(paperback)