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Author Robinson, Todd E. (Todd Ephraim), 1973-

Title A city within a city : the Black freedom struggle in Grand Rapids, Michigan / Todd E. Robinson
Published Philadelphia : Temple University Press, 2013
Online access available from:
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Description 1 online resource (pages cm)
Contents "Rowing, not drifting" : Black organizational reform before World War II -- Citizens action : managerial racism & reform politics -- The suburban oasis : the origins of segregated space -- The mustache saga : the rise of Black youth protest -- A Black child's burden : busing to achieve racial balance -- Where do we go from here : setting the course for racial reconciliation -- Conclusion : secondary cities & the Black urban experience
Summary A City within a City examines the civil rights movement in the North by concentrating on the struggles for equality in Grand Rapids, Michigan. Historian Todd Robinson studies the issues surrounding school integration and bureaucratic reforms as well as the role of black youth activism to detail the diversity of black resistance. He focuses on respectability within the African American community as a way of understanding how the movement was formed and held together. And he elucidates the oppositional role of northern conservatives regarding racial progress. A City withi
Bibliography Includes bibliographical references and index
Notes Print version record
Subject African Americans -- Civil rights -- Michigan -- Grand Rapids -- History.
Grand Rapids (Mich.) -- Race relations.
Grand Rapids (Mich.) -- Social conditions.
Genre/Form History.
Form Electronic book
ISBN 1439909210 (cloth : alk. paper)
1439909229 (paperback: alk. paper)
9781439909218 (cloth : alk. paper)
1439909237 electronic bk
9781439909225 (paperback: alk. paper)
9781439909232 electronic bk