Limit search to available items
Book Cover
E-book

Title Education as cultivation in Chinese culture / Shihkuan Hsu, Yuh-Yin Wu, editors
Published Singapore : Springer, [2014]
©2015
Online access available from:
Springer eBooks    View Resource Record  

Copies

Description 1 online resource (viii, 288 pages) : illustrations
Series Education in the Asia-Pacific Region, 1573-5397 ; volume 26
Education in the Asia-Pacific region ; volume 26
Contents Series Editors' Introduction -- Contents -- Chapter 1: Introduction -- 1.1 The Unique Characteristics of Chinese Learners -- 1.1.1 Unpleasant Environment but Excellent Achievement -- 1.1.2 Strict but Loving Teachers -- 1.1.3 Rote Learning for Higher-Order Thinking -- 1.1.4 Intertwined Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation -- 1.1.5 Effort Not Ability Determines School Success -- 1.2 Cultural Traditions of Chinese Learners -- 1.2.1 Virtue and Not Mind Orientation for Learning -- 1.2.2 Self-Transformation and Not Mastering the World as the Goal for Learning -- 1.2.3 Learning Virtues Rather than Inquiry as the Process of Learning -- 1.2.4 Actions Not Words Are the Key Element for Expression -- 1.2.5 The Tradition Is Supported at Home and School -- 1.2.6 Unanswered Questions -- 1.3 Taiwan as a Window to Understanding Chinese Education -- 1.4 Education as Cultivation in Chinese Culture -- 1.4.1 Cultivation as Learning to Be a Whole Person -- 1.4.2 Cultivation as Learning Throughout Life -- 1.4.3 Cultivation as Structure and Context for Supporting Learning -- 1.4.4 A Brief Note on the Order of the Chapters -- Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 2: Human Nature and Learning in Ancient China -- 2.1 Introduction -- 2.2 A Brief History of the Debate on Human Nature -- 2.3 Theory of Acquired Habits -- 2.3.1 Confucius and Theory of Acquired Habits -- 2.3.2 The Mohist Theory of Acquired Habits -- 2.3.3 Theory of Feelings and Nature -- 2.4 The Theory of the Original Goodness of Human Nature -- 2.4.1 Goodness Is Originated from Within -- 2.4.2 Human Relationships Connect to Intuitive Learning of Goodness -- 2.4.3 People Have Natural Desires for Pursuing Goodness -- 2.5 The Theory of Evil Human Nature -- 2.5.1 The Legalist Theory of Evil Human Nature -- 2.5.2 Definition of Evil Human Nature Proposed by Xunzi
2.5.3 Xunzi's View of Education as a Process of Refining Human Nature -- 2.5.4 Xunzi's Opinion Regarding Learner Psychology as Training the Mind to Transform Oneself -- 2.5.5 Xunzi's Views on Education as Social Compensation Which Produces Respect and Status -- 2.5.6 Xunzi's View of Teachers as Judges of Culture and Guides of Students -- 2.6 Simple and True Theory of Taoism -- 2.6.1 Art and Tao -- 2.7 Analyzing the Education in Taiwan by Theories of Human Nature -- Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 3: The Chinese Way of Goodness -- 3.1 The Meme of Sagehood -- 3.1.1 The Goodness of the Sage King -- 3.1.1.1 Sage Inside -- 3.1.1.2 Kingdom Outside -- 3.1.1.3 Filial Piety -- 3.1.1.4 Frugality and Respecting Good People -- 3.1.2 From Sage King to Sage -- 3.1.3 From Sage to Self-Cultivation -- 3.2 The Way of Goodness -- 3.2.1 Tendency of Goodness in Human Nature -- 3.2.2 Attaining Goodness Realizing Human Nature -- 3.2.3 Suffering Perfecting Human Nature -- 3.3 The Practice of Achieving Goodness: Proactiveness, Self-Cultivation, and Personalization -- Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 4: Teaching at an Early Age -- 4.1 Introduction -- 4.1.1 Prenatal Education -- 4.1.1.1 The Origin and Development of Prenatal Education in Ancient China -- 4.1.2 The Implications of Prenatal Education in Ancient China: The Effects of Women on Fetuses -- 4.1.2.1 The Perspective of Imperceptible Influence and the Concept That External Stimuli Cause Internal Sensations -- 4.1.2.2 Traditional Chinese Medicine Philosophies -- 4.1.3 Prenatal Education and Taboos Associated with Pregnancy -- 4.1.4 Modern Prenatal Education -- 4.2 Chinese Parenting Methods for Babies and Infants -- 4.2.1 Authoritative and Disciplinary Education Styles Used by Chinese Parents -- 4.2.2 Protective Education Provided by Chinese Parents
4.3 Chinese Parenting Methods for Infants and Young Children with Special Needs -- 4.3.1 Early Intervention Increases Parenting Abilities -- 4.3.2 Chinese Parenting Methods for Young Children with Special Needs -- Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 5: Conflicting Images of Young Taiwanese Children -- 5.1 The First Day of Kindergarten -- 5.2 Current Status of Early Childhood Education in Taiwan -- 5.3 Previous Curriculum Standards and Updated Curriculum Guidelines -- 5.4 Development Theories and Parents' Ideal Children -- 5.5 Narrative Texts Used as Character Education Tools or as Art to Be Experienced -- 5.6 Cultivating a Taiwanese Identity or Preparing for Internationalization -- 5.7 Conclusion: The Final Day of Kindergarten -- References -- Chapter 6: Primary Schooling in Taiwan -- 6.1 Two Windows Through Which to View Primary Schooling -- 6.1.1 Ping Ping's School Life -- 6.1.2 An An's School Life -- 6.2 The Main Pictures of Primary Schooling -- 6.2.1 Academic Achievement and Character Cultivation -- 6.2.1.1 Character Cultivation Remains a Dominant Concern -- 6.2.1.2 Academic Achievement Remains a Dominant Concern -- 6.2.2 Teaching and Nourishing -- 6.2.2.1 Teaching Script -- 6.2.2.2 Nourishing Primary Schooling -- 6.3 Looking into the Future -- References -- Chapter 7: The Studying and Striving of Secondary Students -- 7.1 A Typical Day of High School Students -- 7.2 What It Means to Be a Good Student -- 7.3 The Meaning of Learning -- 7.3.1 Entwining of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Aims -- 7.3.2 An Important Goal for the Whole Family -- 7.3.3 Cultivation of Characteristics -- 7.4 Choosing "Good" High Schools -- 7.4.1 The Division of Laoxin and Laoli -- 7.4.2 The Effort to Eliminate the Elite-Mass Divide -- 7.5 The Challenge of Ever More Complicated Educational Goals -- 7.5.1 Changing from Educating the Elites to Educating the Public
7.5.2 Changing Curriculum from Traditional Values to Multiple Academic Disciplines -- 7.5.3 Changing Evaluation from a Single Focus to a Diversified Assessment -- 7.6 Developing the Ideal Youth -- 7.7 Reflection and Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 8: Art Transforms Destiny: The Unified Examination and Fine Art Education -- 8.1 Introduction -- 8.2 Gaokao and Fine Art Freshmen Recruitment -- 8.3 The Recruitment Process and the Loophole -- 8.4 Discussion and Conclusion -- 8.4.1 The Embedded Loophole Phenomenon -- 8.4.2 Fine Art Education in the Nanjing Area -- 8.4.3 Fine Art Education in the Larger Chinese-Speaking World -- References -- Chapter 9: Education-Based Mobility and the Chinese Civilization -- 9.1 Introduction -- 9.2 Beyond the Kinship Principle -- 9.3 Pre-Qin Meritocracy -- 9.4 The Civil Service Examination -- 9.5 Discussion -- References -- Chapter 10: The Conflict Between Social Mobility and Individual Development -- 10.1 Cultural Approach to Chinese Education -- 10.2 Education and the Confucian Moral-Political Order -- 10.2.1 Dilemma Within the Confucian Moral-Political Order -- 10.2.2 Confucian Ideal and Modern Education Reform -- 10.3 Joint Entrance Examinations -- 10.3.1 The Consequences of the Joint Entrance Examination -- 10.3.2 The Ill Effects of the Entrance Examination -- 10.4 The Ban-ji System in the Classroom -- 10.5 The Normalization of Ban-ji Formation -- 10.6 The 12-Year Basic Education Program as a Reform Act -- 10.6.1 Grand School District -- 10.6.2 Three Categories for Prioritization -- 10.6.2.1 Comprehensive Graduation Test -- 10.6.2.2 Multidisciplinary Learning -- 10.6.2.3 Priority List -- 10.7 Reforms at the University Level -- 10.7.1 Obscuring Departmental Rankings -- 10.7.2 Obscuring Student Ranking -- 10.7.3 The Proliferation of Universities -- Conclusion -- References
Chapter 11: Teachers' Dual Responsibilities for Academic Achievement and Character Development -- 11.1 A Classroom Vignette -- 11.2 Climbing High on the Achievement Ladder -- 11.2.1 Pushing Students to Climb Higher on the Achievement Ladder -- 11.2.2 Imperial Chinese Civil Service Examination and Current Examinations -- 11.2.3 Current Task of Teachers: Pushing Students up the Achievement Ladder -- 11.2.4 The Value of Effort -- 11.3 Taking Care of Each Other: Brothers and Sisters -- 11.3.1 Secret Angel Activity as a Symbol of the Classroom Family -- 11.3.2 Unity of Class (Ban-ji) as an Extension of Caring -- 11.4 Teachers Balancing Dual Responsibilities -- Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 12: Finding a New Identify for Teachers -- 12.1 The Role of a Teacher in Chinese Society -- 12.1.1 Teacher of Knowledge and Teacher of People -- 12.1.1.1 Teachers of Knowledge -- 12.1.1.2 Teachers of People -- 12.1.2 The Trusted and Respected Teacher -- 12.1.3 Teachers in Contemporary Chinese Culture and Schools -- 12.2 The Struggle of Teachers in a Changing Society -- 12.2.1 Historical Review of Teachers' Pressure and Struggle -- 12.2.2 Professionalism: The Changing Benchmark and Identity for Teachers -- 12.2.2.1 Professionalism and Teacher Responsibility -- 12.2.2.2 Professionalism and Content of Teaching -- 12.2.2.3 Impact of Professionalism on Students -- 12.2.3 Democracy: The Rising Power of Students and Parents -- 12.3 Hopes for the New Identity of Chinese Teachers -- 12.3.1 Reflecting on Teacher's Role in Historical and Social Context -- 12.3.2 Teachers' Professional Development -- 12.3.3 The Support from the Government and the Public -- Conclusion -- References -- Chapter 13: Conclusion -- 13.1 The Problem We Face Today -- 13.2 What We Have Learned -- 13.2.1 Human Nature Is Transformable -- 13.2.2 Becoming Good Is the Goal of Education and Cultivation
Summary Given the increasing global interest in Chinese culture, this book uses case studies to describe and interpret Chinese cultivation in contemporary Taiwanese schools. Cultivation is a concept unique to Chinese culture and is characterized by different attitudes towards teaching and learning compared to Western models of education. The book starts with a discussion of human nature in Chinese schools of philosophy and levels of goodness. Following the philosophical background is a presentation of how cultivation is practiced in Chinese culture from prenatal through high school education. The case studies focus both on how students are cultivated as they become members of Chinese society, and on what role teachers play in cultivating the children in school. In addition, supports from Chinese educational institutions, including public schools, families, and organizations such as private cram schools, are introduced and explained. In closing, the book presents a critique of the modern school reform movement and the conflicts between the reform proposals and traditional practices. Based on the collective work of Taiwanese researchers in the fields of education, history and anthropology, the book identifies the purpose of education as cultivating virtue in a process of creating an ideal person who serves society, and describes the way teachers have carried on this tradition despite its faltering status in contemporary educational discourse and in the face of reform movements
Notes Includes index
Online resource; title from PDF title page (SpringerLink, viewed November 14, 2014)
Subject Education -- China.
Form Electronic book
Author Hsu, Shihkuan, editor
Wu, Yuh-Yin, editor
ISBN 9789812872241 (electronic bk.)
9812872248 (electronic bk.)