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Book Cover
Book
Author Stabin, Michael G.

Title Radiation protection and dosimetry : an introduction to health physics / Michael G. Stabin
Published New York, NY : Springer, [2007]
©2007

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Location Call no. Vol. Availability
 W'PONDS  612.014480287 Sta/Rpa  AVAILABLE
Description xv, 378 pages : illustrations (some color) ; 26 cm
Contents Machine derived contents note: Chapter L Introduction to Health Physics 1 -- 1L. Definition of Health Physics 1 -- .2 Overview of the Role of Health Physics 1 -- 1.3 Employment of Health Physicists 2 -- .4 Educational Background 2 -- "1.5 nteraction of Health Physicists with Other Disciplines 3 -- 1 6 This Text and its Relation to a Training Program 4 -- Chapter 2. Scientific Fundamentals 5 -- 2.1 Quantities and Units in Science and Engineering 5 -- 2.2 Background Information 6 -- 23 Nature of Matter--Molecules, Atoms, Quarks 7 -- 24 Excitation and lonization 0 -- 2.5 Refinements to the Bohr Atom 11 -- 2.6 Characteristic X-rays 12 -- 217 Binding Energy 13 -- 2.8 The Chart of the Nuclides 4 -- 1.9 Some Elements of Quantum Theory 15 -- 2.)1 Electromagnetic Radiation 15 -- 11.2 Wave/Particle Duality of Nature 17 -- 2.9.3 The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle 17 -- Chapter 3. Radioactive Atoms-Nature and Beharior 18 -- 3.1 Alpha Emission 21 -- 3.2 Positron Emission 23 -- 3.3 Orbital Electron Capture 25 -- 3A Beta (Minus) Emission 26 -- 3.5 CGama Ray Emission 27 -- 3.6 internal Conversion Electrons 28 -- ýi7 Auger Electrons 28 -- 3.8 Summary and Examples 28 -- 3.9 Transformation Kinetics 30 -- 130 Average Life (Mean Life) 34 -- 3.11 Specific Activity 34 -- 3,12 Series Decay 35 -- 3.13 Time of Maximum Progeny Activity 38 -- 3.14 Tracing Radioactive Decay on the Chart of the Nuclides 40 -- Chapter 4. nteraction of Radiation with Matter 43 -- 4,1 Charged Particle Interaction Mechanisms 46 -- 4.2 Alpha Particle interactions 46 -- 4.3 Beta Particle Interactions 49 -- 4.4 Specific Ionization 52 -- 4.5 Mass Stopping Power 53 -- 4.6 Linear Energy Transfer (LET) 54 -- 4.7 Brernsstrahlung Radiation 54 -- 4.8 Gamma Ray Interactions 55 -- 4.9 Mechanisms 57 -- 4.91 Photoelectric Effect 58 -- 4.9.2 Compton Effect 58 -- 4.9.3 Pair Production 60 -- 4.9.4 Photodisintegration 60 -- 4 10 Photon Attenuation and Absorption Coefficients 61 -- 4,11 Neutron Interactions 61 -- 4.1t.1 Scattering 64 -- 4.11.2 Absorption 64 -- Chapter 5. Quantities and Units in Radiation Protection 67 -- 5.1 Exposure 69 -- 5.2 Absorbed Dose and Equivalent Dose 69 -- 5.3 Radioactivity 73 -- 5.4 Particle and Energy Field Units 74 -- Chapter 6. Biological Effects of Radiation 75 -- 6.1 Introduction: Background 75 -- 6.2 Mechanisms of Radiation Damage to Biological Systems 79 -- 6.3 Biological Effects in Humans 81 -- 6.3.1 Nonstochastic Effects 82 -- "63. 1.1 Death from Whole Body Exposure-The Acute -- Radiation Syndrome 84 -- 6.3. 1. 1.1 Hemopoetic Syndrome 85 -- 6.3.1.1.2 Gastrointestinal (GI) Syndrlome 86 -- 6.3.1,1.3 Central Nervous System (CNS) -- Syndrome 86 -- 6.3.1.2 Damage to Skin 87 -- 6.3.1.3 Gonads 90 -- 6.3.1.4 Cataract Formation 91 -- 6.3.2 Stochastic Effects 92 -- 6.3.2.1 Cancer 92 -- 6 3,2.2 Leukemia 95 -- 63.2.3 Bone Cancer 95 -- 6.3,2.4 Lung Cancer 95 -- 6.3,2.5 Thyroid Cancer 97 -- 632.6 ereditrary Effects 98 -- 6,3.2.7 Mathematical Models of Cancer Risk 98 -- 64 Cell Survival Studies 100 -- 6.5 Relatve Biological Effectiveness 102 -- Chapter 7. The Basis for Regulation of Radiation Exposure 105 -- 7, Period 1: 1895-1913 105 -- 7.2 Period2 1 91 3-1922 105 -- 7.3 Period 3: 1922-1928 106 -- 74 Period 4: 1928-1934 106 -- 7.5 Period 5: 1934-1941 107 -- ..6 Period 6: 1941-1946 a07 -- 7.7 Period 7: 1946--1953 108 -- 7.8 Period 8: 1953-1959 109 -- 7.9 Period 9: 1960-1965 10 -- 7.10 Period 10: 1966-Present 111 -- 7. 11 Period 11: The Future 114 -- 7.i2 Radiation Regulations-An Acronym-onious History 115 -- 7.12.1 Introduction 15 -- "i.12. Scientific Advisory Bodies 116 -- 7.123 Regulatory Bodies 119 -- Chapter 8. Health Physics Instrumentation 132 -- 8.1 Thermal Reactions 1-32 -- 8.2 Chemical Reactions 133 -- 8.3 Electrical Devices 134 -- 8.3.1 Gas Filled Detectors 134 -- .3.2 Light Production: Scintillation Detectors 145 -- 8.3.3 Semiconductor Detectors 149 -- 8.4 Alpha and Gamma Spectroscopy/Spectrometry 151 -- 8.5 Personnel Monitoring 154 -- 8.6 Neutron Detection 159 -- 8.7 Caiibration Considerations 162 -- 8.7.1 Photons 163 -- 8,. 2 1 ectrons/Beta 163 -- 8.7.3 Alpha 163 -- 8.7.4 Neutrons 164 -- 8.8 Counting Statistics 164 -- 8.8.1 Gaussian Distribution 165 -- 8.8.2 Poisson Distnrbution 168 -- 8.83 Propagation of Errors 170 -- 8.84 Mean Value of Multiple Independent Counts 172 -- 8.8.5 Minimum Detectable Activity 173 -- 8.8 6 Optimization of Limited Counting Time 176 -- Chapter 9. External Dose Assess ment 178 -- 9.1 Dose from Discrete Photon Sources 179 -- 9.2 Specific Gamma Ray Emission Factor 1 80 -- 9.2.1 Point Source 180 -- "92.2 Line Source 182 -- 9.2.13 Plane Source 183 -- 9.2.4 Volume Source 184 -- 9.3 Dose from Discrete Electron Sources 186 -- 9.4 Hot Particles 188 -- 9.5 Dose from Discrete Neutron Sources 189 -- 9.6 Dose from Extended Sources 191 -- 9,7 Tritium and Noble Gases 196 -- 9.8 Computer Modeling in External Dose Assessment 198 -- 9.9 Literature Resources in External Dose Assessment 202 -- Chapter 10. Ilnternal Dose Assessment 205 -- IO.1 Basic Concepts in Internal Dose Calculations 205 -- 10.2 Effective Half-Time 207 -- 10.3 Dosimetry Systems 209 -- 10.3.1 Marinelli.-Quimby Method 210 -- 10.3.2 International Commission on Radiological Protection 210 -- 10.3i3 Medical internal Radiation Dose (MIVRD) System 212 -- 10.3.4 Radar 213 -- 10.4 Internal Dose Calculations for Radiation Workers 213 -- 10.5 Internal Dose Calculations for Nuclear Medicine Patients 228 -- Chapter 1L Radiation Protection Practice/Evaluation 244 -- i . I Introduction 244 -- 11.2 External Protection Principles 246 -- 11.3 Shielding of Photon Sources 247 -- 11.4 Graded or Laminated Shielding 2 50 -- 11.5 Shielding of X-Ray Sources 251 -- I1.6 Shielding of Discrete Electron Sources 257 -- 11.7 ShieldIng of Neutron Sources 261 -- 11.8 Performing Radiation Surveys 265 -- 119 Principles of Optimizatiopn 266 -- 11.10 Protection of Workers from Internal Contamination 269 -- 11.I11 Air Sampling Calculations 275 -- S11.12 Methods for Gathering Bioassay Data 281 -- 11 ,12.1 i In-'Vivo Counting 282 -- S11.12.2 In-vitro Measurements 285 -- 11,1 2.3 Interpretation of Bioassay Data 285 -- 11. 13 Criticality and Criticality Control 291 -- Chapter 12. Environmental Monitoring for Radiation 309 -- 12.1 Types of Environmental Assessment Programs 310 -- i2.2. Types of Facilities Monitored 311 -- '2.3 Types of Samples and Sampling Strategies 3t11 -- 12.3.1 Direct Gamma Exposure Readings 313 -- 12.3.2 Airborne Concentrations of Radionuaclides 315 -- 12.4 Long-Term Off-Site Monitoring 316 -- 12.4,1 Concentrations of Radionuclides in Water 318 -- 12.4.2 Concentrations of Radionuclides in Soil or Sediment 320 -- 12.4.3 Concentrations of Radionuclides in Biological -- Species (Biota) 322 -- 12.5 General Sampling Strategies and Techniques 323 -- 12.6 Sample Management 326 -- 17 Instrunmentation 329 -- 118 Evaluation of the Data 330 -- 129 Radioactive Waste Management 336 -- 12.9.1 The Nuclear Fuel Cycle 337 -- 12.9.2 General Waste Types 341 -- 12110 Site Evaluation 343 -- Chapter 13 Noininizing Radiation 348 -- 13.1 Ultraviolet Radiation 348 -- 13.2 Lasers 353 -- 13.3 Radiofrequency Radiation, and Microwave Sources 364 -- 13 4 Emf 368 -- S3.5 Magnetc Resonance Imaging (MRi) 369
Summary "This comprehensive text provides an overview of all relevant topics in the field of radiation protection (health physics). Radiation Protection and Dosimetry serves as an essential handbook for practicing health physics professionals, and is also ideal as a teaching text for courses at the university level. The book is organized to introduce the reader to basic principles of radiation decay and interactions, to review current knowledge and historical aspects of the biological effects of radiation, and to cover important operational topics such as radiation shielding and dosimetry. In addition to presenting the most up to date treatment of the topics and references to the literature, most chapters contain numerical problems with their solutions for use in teaching or self assessment. One chapter is devoted to Environmental Health Physics, which was written in collaboration with leading professionals in the area."--Jacket
Bibliography Includes bibliographical references and index
Notes Print version record
Subject Medical physics.
Radiation tolerance.
Radiation dosimetry.
Radiation -- Physiological effect.
Radiation -- Safety measures.
Radiation Protection.
Radiation Dosage.
Radiation Monitoring.
LC no. 2007930708
ISBN 0387499822 (alk. paper)
0387499830 (e-ISBN)
9780387499826 (alk. paper)
9780387499833 (eISBN)