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Author Johnson, Stephen B., 1959-

Title The secret of Apollo : systems management in American and European space programs / Stephen B. Johnson
Published Baltimore : Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002
Online access available from:
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Description 1 online resource (xvii, 290 pages) : illustrations
Series New series in NASA history
New series in NASA history.
Contents Introduction: management and the control of research and development -- Social and technical issues of spaceflight -- Creating concurrency -- From concurrency to systems management -- JPL's journey from missiles to space -- Organizing the manned space program -- Organizing ELDO for failure -- ESRO's American bridge across the management gap -- Coordination and control of high-tech research and development
Summary How does one go about organizing something as complicated as a strategic-missile or space-exploration program? Stephen B. Johnson here explores the answer -- systems management -- in a groundbreaking study that involves Air Force planners, scientists, technical specialists, and, eventually, bureaucrats. Taking a comparative approach, Johnson focuses on the theory, or intellectual history, of "systems engineering" as such, its origins in the Air Force's Cold War ICBM efforts, and its migration to not only NASA but the European Space Agency. Exploring the history and politics of aerospace development and weapons procurement, Johnson examines how scientists and engineers created the systems management process to coordinate large-scale technology development, and how managers and military officers gained control of that process. "Those funding the race demanded results," Johnson explains. "In response, development organizations created what few expected and what even fewer wanted -- a bureaucracy for innovation. To begin to understand this apparent contradiction in terms, we must first understand the exacting nature of space technologies and the concerns of those who create them."
Bibliography Includes bibliographical references (pages 233-276) and index
Notes Print version record
Subject Astronautics -- Europe -- Management.
Astronautics -- United States -- Management.
Astronautics, Military -- Europe -- Management.
Astronautics, Military -- United States -- Management.
Form Electronic book
LC no. 2001005688
ISBN 080186898X (hc ; alk. paper)
0801876184 (electronic bk.)
0801885426 (print)
9780801868986 (hc ; alk. paper)
9780801876189 (electronic bk.)
9780801885426 (print)