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Author Alexander, Shawn Leigh.

Title An army of lions : the civil rights struggle before the NAACP / Shawn Leigh Alexander
Published Philadelphia : University of Pennsylvania Press, [2012]
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Description 1 online resource (xviii, 382 pages :) : illustrations
Series Politics and culture in modern America
Politics and culture in modern America.
Contents Aceldama and the black response -- "Stand their ground on this civil rights business" -- Interregnum and resurrection -- Not just "a bubble in soap water" -- To awaken the conscience of America -- Invasion of the Tuskegee machine -- An army of mice or an army of lions? -- "It is strike now or never
Summary In January 1890, journalist T. Thomas Fortune stood before a delegation of African American activists in Chicago and declared, "We know our rights and have the courage to defend them," as together they formed the Afro-American League, the nation's first national civil rights organization. Over the next two decades, Fortune and his fellow activists organized, agitated, and, in the process, created the foundation for the modern civil rights movement. An Army of Lions: The Civil Rights Struggle Before the NAACPtraces the history of this first generation of activists and the organizations they formed to give the most comprehensive account of black America's struggle for civil rights from the end of Reconstruction to the formation of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People in 1909. Here a host of leaders neglected by posterityBishop Alexander Walters, Mary Church Terrell, Jesse Lawson, Lewis G. Jordan, Kelly Miller, George H. White, Frederick McGhee, Archibald Grimkéworked alongside the more familiar figures of Ida B. Wells-Barnett, W.E.B. Du Bois, and Booker T. Washington, who are viewed through a fresh lens. As Jim Crow curtailed modes of political protest and legal redress, members of the Afro-American League and the organizations that formed in its wakeincluding the Afro-American Council, the Niagara Movement, the Constitution League, and the Committee of Twelveused propaganda, moral suasion, boycotts, lobbying, electoral office, and the courts, as well as the call for self-defense, to end disfranchisement, segregation, and racial violence. In the process, the League and the organizations it spawned provided the ideological and strategic blueprint of the NAACP and the struggle for civil rights in the twentieth century, demonstrating that there was significant and effective agitation during "the age of accommodation."
Analysis "Multi-User"
Bibliography Includes bibliographical references and index
Subject African Americans -- Civil rights -- History -- 19th century.
African Americans -- Civil rights -- History -- 20th century.
African Americans -- Politics and government -- 19th century.
African Americans -- Politics and government -- 20th century.
African Americans -- Social conditions -- To 1964.
Civil rights movements -- Civil rights -- History -- 19th century.
Civil rights movements -- Civil rights -- History -- 20th century.
United States -- Race relations -- History -- 19th century.
United States -- Race relations -- History -- 20th century.
Form Electronic book
LC no. 2011023615
ISBN 0812205723 (electronic bk.)
081222244X (Trade Paper)
9780812205725 (e-book)
9780812205725 (electronic bk.)
9780812222449 (Trade Paper)