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Book Cover
Book
Author McBeath, Jennifer H.

Title Environmental change and food security in China / Jenifer Huang McBeath, Jerry McBeath
Published Dordrecht ; London : Springer, [2010]
©2010

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 MELB  363.80951 Mcb/Eca  AVAILABLE
Description xvii, 303 pages : 1 map ; 25 cm
Series Advances in global change research ; v. 35
Advances in global change research ; v. 35
Contents Machine generated contents note: 1.Introduction -- 1.1.The Problem of Food Security and Environmental Change -- 1.1.1.Definitions and Global Dimensions -- 1.1.2.The Importance of China to Global Food Security -- 1.2.Plan of the Book -- 1.3.Food Security in Traditional China -- 1.3.1.Food Production Regions -- 1.3.2.Food Production in China's Pre-history -- 1.3.3.Primary Environmental Stressors in the Dynastic Era (211 BC-1912) -- 1.3.4.Imperial Responses -- 1.4.Food Security in the Republican Period: 1912-1949 -- 1.4.1.Difference of Environmental Stressors -- 1.4.2.Changes from Imperial Policy -- 1.5.Conclusion -- 2.Communist Rule and the Food Security Situation -- 2.1.Establishment of the Command Economy, 1949-1978 -- 2.1.1.Central Planning of Agricultural Production -- 2.1.2.Ideological Control of Plan Targets and Methods -- 2.2.Policy Choices and Impacts on Agricultural Production -- 2.2.1.Early Land Reform and Collectivization -- 2.2.2.The Great Leap Forward (1958-1960) --
Contents note continued: 2.2.3.The Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) -- 2.3.Policy Reforms, 1978-2009 -- 2.3.1.Introduction of Production Incentives -- 2.3.2.Grain Sales and Changing State Intervention -- 2.3.3.Improvements in Infrastructure -- 2.3.4.Opening to the World -- 2.4.China's Current Food System -- 2.4.1.The Food on China's Tables -- 2.4.2.Degree of Food Sufficiency -- 2.4.3.Regional and Income Variations -- 2.4.4.Changes in Food Preferences -- 2.5.Conclusions -- 3.Immediate Environmental Stressors on Food Security -- 3.1.How Much Arable Land Does China Have? -- 3.2.Causes of Arable Land Loss -- 3.2.1.Population Growth and Pressure -- 3.2.2.Urbanization -- 3.2.3.Economic Development -- 3.3.Effects of Socioeconomic Change -- 3.3.1.Land Degradation -- 3.3.2.Degradation of China's Waters -- 3.4.State Responses to Environmental Stressors -- 3.4.1.Restriction on Arable Land Conversion -- 3.4.2.China's One-Child Policy -- 3.4.3.State Investments in Irrigation Systems --
Contents note continued: 3.4.4.Large-Scale Dam Construction -- 3.4.5.The South-North Water Diversion Project -- 3.4.6.Large-Scale Afforestation and Reforestation Projects -- 3.4.7.Restoration of Forests and Grasslands -- 3.5.Conclusions: Overall Impacts on Current Food Security -- 4.Near-Term Environmental Stressors: Climate Change -- 4.1.Introduction -- 4.2.China's Energy Policy -- 4.2.1.Reliance on Coal -- 4.2.2.Toxic Emissions -- 4.2.3.Energy Efficiency -- 4.2.4.Alternate Energy Strategies -- 4.3.China's Traditional Agriculture and Climate Change -- 4.3.1.Wet Rice Cultivation -- 4.3.2.Livestock Production -- 4.3.3.Other Agricultural Factors -- 4.4.Natural Climate Cycles -- 4.5.Observed Climate Change Effects -- 4.5.1.Temperature Changes -- 4.5.2.Precipitation Changes -- 4.5.3.Surface Evaporation Changes -- 4.5.4.Sunshine Duration -- 4.5.5.Wind Speed Changes -- 4.6.Correlation of Climate Change and Extreme Weather Events -- 4.6.1.Floods -- 4.6.2.Drought -- 4.6.3.Heat Waves --
Contents note continued: 4.6.4.Rising Sea Level -- 4.6.5.Typhoons -- 4.6.6.Other Extreme Weather Events -- 4.7.Impacts of Climate Change on Agricultural Production -- 4.7.1.Impacts on Rice Production -- 4.7.2.Wheat Production -- 4.7.3.Maize Production -- 4.7.4.Cotton Production -- 4.7.5.Mitigation Difficulties -- 4.8.Conclusions -- 5.Plant Diseases, Pests and Food Security -- 5.1.Introduction -- 5.2.Definition of Primary Concepts -- 5.3.Economic Impact of Diseases and Insect Pests on Food Production -- 5.4.Diseases and Insect Pests of Historical and Contemporary Importance -- 5.4.1.Migratory Locusts (Locusta migratoria) -- 5.4.2.Rice Blast Disease -- 5.4.3.Wheat Rust Diseases -- 5.5.Emerging and Re-emerging Diseases and Insect Pests -- 5.5.1.Rice Diseases and Insect Pests -- 5.5.2.Wheat Diseases and Pests -- 5.5.3.Diseases and Insect Pests on Corn -- 5.5.4.Potato Diseases and Insect Pests -- 5.5.5.Important Soybean Diseases and Pests --
Contents note continued: 5.6.Plant Pathogens Affecting Crop Yield and Human/Animal Health -- 5.6.1.Rice False Smut -- 5.6.2.Wheat Scab -- 5.6.3.Maize Ear, Kernel Rot and Post-harvest Diseases -- 5.7.Effects of Social and Environmental Changes on Diseases and Pests -- 5.7.1.Agricultural Cultural Practices -- 5.7.2.Government Policy -- 5.7.3.Improvement of Domestic Transportation -- 5.7.4.Climate Change -- 5.8.Control Measures -- 5.8.1.Regulatory Controls -- 5.8.2.Cultural Control Measures -- 5.8.3.Plant Breeding for Disease Resistance -- 5.8.4.Biological Controls -- 5.8.5.Physical Control Means -- 5.8.6.Chemical Control Measures -- 5.9.Conclusions -- 6.Invasive Species and Food Security -- 6.1.Introduction -- 6.2.Nature of Invasive Species -- 6.2.1.Definitions -- 6.2.2.Transmission of Invasive Species -- 6.2.3.Valorization of Invasive Species -- 6.3.Invasive Species with Impacts on Food Production -- 6.3.1.Plant Species -- 6.3.2.Insect Species -- 6.3.3.Fish Species --
Contents note continued: 6.3.4.Other Species -- 6.4.Immediate Environmental Stressors as Causes of the Unintentional Transmission of Invasive Species -- 6.4.1.Socio-Economic Change -- 6.4.2.Improved Domestic Transportation Systems -- 6.4.3.Increased International Trade and Tourism -- 6.5.Climate Change and Invasive Species -- 6.6.Responses to Spread of Invasive Species in China -- 6.6.1.Global Recommendations -- 6.6.2.Law and Regulations on Invasive Species -- 6.6.3.Mitigation Measures -- 6.6.4.Future Directions -- 6.7.Conclusions -- 7.Biotechnological Responses to Food Security Needs -- 7.1.Introduction -- 7.2.The Development of Biotechnology in China -- 7.2.1.Motivations -- 7.2.2.Organization and Funding of Agricultural Biotechnology Research -- 7.2.3.Role of the Private Sector in Agricultural Biotechnology -- 7.2.4.China's Importation of GMOs: The Case of Soybeans -- 7.3.The "Success Story" of Bt Cotton -- 7.3.1.Development of Bt Cotton -- 7.3.2.Initial Impacts of Bt Cotton --
Contents note continued: 7.3.3.Potential Problems in Bt Cotton Production -- 7.4.Approval of Other Crop and Plant Species -- 7.5.The Special Case of Genetically-Modified Rice -- 7.5.1.Development and Testing of Bt Rice -- 7.5.2.The Promise of Bt Rice -- 7.5.3.Resistance to Commercialization of Bt Rice -- 7.6.Biosafety Concerns About GMOs -- 7.6.1.Global Resistance to GMOs and the Cartagena Protocol -- 7.6.2.Lack of Elite Consensus -- 7.6.3.Limited Public Information on GMOs -- 7.7.China's Biosafety Regime -- 7.7.1.Origin of the Biosafety Regime -- 7.7.2.Structure of the Regime -- 7.7.3.Biosafety Implementation -- 7.8.Conclusions -- 8.The Legal and Institutional Framework to Address Food Security Needs -- 8.1.Introduction -- 8.2.Constitutional and Legal Provisions -- 8.2.1.The 1982 Constitution -- 8.2.2.Framework of Laws -- 8.2.3.Regulations and Policies -- 8.3.Central Ministries -- 8.3.1.Agencies Emphasizing Food Production -- 8.3.2.Agencies Emphasizing Food Consumption --
Contents note continued: 8.3.3.Agencies Emphasizing System-Wide Control Functions -- 8.3.4.Related Agencies -- 8.4.Devolution of Functions to Sub-national Governments -- 8.4.1.Grants of Authority -- 8.4.2.Coordination Methods -- 8.5.Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) and Food Security -- 8.5.1.The NGO Environment in China -- 8.5.2.Greenpeace's Food Security Campaigns in China -- 8.5.3.Activities of Other NGOs -- 8.6.China's New Food Safety Regime -- 8.6.1.Tainted Products -- 8.6.2.Revisions to the Structure of the Food Safety Regime -- 8.6.3.Revision to Laws and Regulations on Food Safety -- 8.6.4.Corrective Measures -- 8.6.5.More Tainted Products -- 8.7.Conclusions -- 9.Issues in Implementing Food Security in China -- 9.1.Introduction -- 9.2.The Knowledge Base -- 9.2.1.The Structure of Knowledge Concerning the Food System -- 9.2.2.Budget Allocations for Research and Development -- 9.2.3.Knowledge of China's Farming Population --
Contents note continued: 9.3.Challenges To Administrative Coordination -- 9.3.1.Horizontal Coordination -- 9.3.2.Vertical Coordination -- 9.4.Modernization of China's Agricultural Infrastructure -- 9.5.Poverty Alleviation and Food Security -- 9.5.1.Poverty Reduction from the Late 1970s to the Present -- 9.5.2.Government Poverty Alleviation Programs -- 9.5.3.Challenges for Future Poverty Alleviation Policies -- 9.6.Limited Opportunities for Public Participation -- 9.6.1.Media Reportage of Environmental and Food Security Issues -- 9.6.2.Impediments to the Development of Civil Society -- 9.6.3.Citizen Protests -- 9.7.International Challenges -- 9.7.1.China's Trade in Agricultural Products -- 9.7.2.Issues Related to China's Entrance to the WTO -- 9.7.3.Compliance with Other International Conventions -- 9.8.Conclusions -- 10.Summary and Conclusions -- Summary -- 10.1.Observations -- 10.1.1.Priority of Food Security -- 10.1.2.Changing Definition of Food --
Contents note continued: 10.1.3.Comparative Advantage and Food Security -- 10.1.4.Contradictions of Policy -- 10.1.5.The Role of Science -- 10.1.6.The Role of Crises -- 10.1.7.Domestic Economic Challenges: The Nungmingong (Farmer-workers) -- 10.1.8.Domestic Political Challenges to Food Security -- 10.1.9.International Challenges to Food Security -- 10.1.10.Environmental Challenges to Food Security
Summary With 22 percent of the world's population but only 7 percent of its arable land, China's food situation is a matter of global concern. Environmental Change and Food Security in China, is the first to introduce comprehensively the threats to China's system of food production, distribution, and consumption. It analyzes broad challenges of population growth, urbanization, and extraordinarily rapid economic development. Then it focuses on degradation of China's land, water and air, water sufficiency, and evidence of climate change effects as they adversely affect the food system. The study investigates plant diseases and pests which take a large toll on agricultural production and also considers alien invasive species. Normal bureaucratic routines of agricultural, land, water, climatological, and environmental agencies are inadequate to counter these challenges, and the regime has launched large projects (e.g., the South-North Water Diversion Project) and conducted national --
campaigns (e.g., re-and afforestation programs) which are unprecedented in their scope. Also, China has invested more heavily in agricultural biotechnology research than any other developing country. These responses have insured self-sufficiency in food staples to the present. --
The volume evaluates several future problems and issues in China's approach to food security. Despite attempts to tighten coordination of policy and improve enforcement, as seen in efforts to resolve the tainted products crisis of 2007-08, the increased autonomy of local governments often frustrates green and clean ambitions of the state. Although the regime has tolerated environmental and other NGOs, allowed the media greater latitude to report bad news, and permitted protests that do not challenge the communist party's authority, still civil society is weak. While economic development has lifted more than 200 million from poverty, rural/urban inequality increases, pushing the poor into China's cities, and access to food remains a problem for many. --Book Jacket
Notes Formerly CIP. Uk
Bibliography Includes bibliographical references and index
Notes Print version record
Subject Food supply -- China.
Agricultural innovations -- China.
Food supply -- Government policy -- China.
Food crops -- Effect of global warming on -- China.
Food crops -- Effect of pollution on -- China.
Food Supply.
Agriculture.
Crops, Agricultural.
Food Supply [MESH]
Agriculture [MESH]
Crops, Agricultural [MESH]
China.
China [MESH]
Author McBeath, Gerald A.
LC no. 2010924737
ISBN 9781402091797 hardback
1402091796 hardback
9781402091803 eISBN
140209180X ebook