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Book Cover
Author Honorati, Maddalena, author

Title Expanding job opportunities in Ghana / Maddalena Honorati and Sara Johansson da Silva
Published Washington, DC : World Bank Group, [2016]
Online access available from:
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Description 1 online resource (xii, 145 pages) : color illustrations
Series Directions in development. Human development
Directions in development (Washington, D.C.). Human development.
Contents Front Cover; Contents; Acknowledgments; Abbreviations; Overview; Jobs Matter for Ghana; Challenges and Constraints to Expanding Job Opportunities; Priorities and Possible Solutions; Note; References; Chapter 1 The Context for Job Creation in Ghana; Main Messages; The Ghana Success Story: Two Decades of High Growth and Significant Poverty Reduction; New Challenges: Less Inclusive Growth and Macroeconomic Imbalances; Growing Working-Age Population and Significant Urbanization; Labor Productivity and Job Creation in Ghana: Quality versus Quantity of Jobs; Notes; References
Box 2.1 Sources of Data for the Profile of Labor StatusBox 2.2 Definitions of Labor Market Indicators; Box 2.3 Estimating Informality in Ghana's Labor Markets; Box 2.4 International Migration from Ghana; Box 3.1 Child Labor in Ghana; Box 3.2 Results from the STEP Household Survey on Education, Skills, Employment, and Productivity; Box 4.1 Firm-Level Data Used; Box 4.2 What Is an Off-Farm Household Enterprise?; Box 4.3 The Challenges of Street Vending in Ghana; Box 5.1 Jobs for Development: Some Messages from the World Development Report on Jobs
Box 5.2 Harnessing Digital Technologies to Address Information AsymmetriesBox 5.3 Labor Market Regulations and Institutions; Box 5.4 Improving Existing Skill Development and Active Labor Market Programs to Facilitate the Transition of Youth to Productive Jobs in Ghana; Figures; Figure 1.1 Economic Growth in Ghana as Compared with Its African Peers; Figure 1.2 Natural Resources as Drivers of Growth; Figure 1.3 Economic Structure and Contribution to Growth, by Sector; Figure 1.4 Decline in Poverty Rates in Ghana; Figure 1.5 Ghana's Population, by Age and Gender
Chapter 2 A Profile of Jobs in Ghana: Where and How Do People Work?Main Messages; What Is a Good Job?; The 2012 Snapshot of Jobs; Who Are the Jobless?; Who Lacks Access to Better Jobs? The Challenges of Creating More Inclusive Jobs; The Transformation of the Landscape of Jobs in Ghana; Notes; References; Chapter 3 Transitions into Work and the Role of Skills; Main Messages; Education, Skills, and Jobs; Transitions into Work; Skills Development for Labor Markets; Note; References; Chapter 4 Where Are Jobs Created?; Main Messages; Jobs and the Private Sector
Mapping Jobs to Formal Nonagricultural FirmsThe Profile of Informal Off-Farm Household Enterprises and Jobs; What Prevents Microenterprises from Transforming to Job-Creating Firms?; Notes; References; Chapter 5 Jobs for Development in Ghana: What Can Policy Do?; How Many Jobs and What Kind of Jobs?; Policy Options to Foster More Productive Jobs; Notes; References; Boxes; Box 1.1 Opportunities and Challenges of Urbanization; Box 1.2 The Role of Agriculture in Structural Change and Poverty Reduction in Africa; Box 1.3 Separating Out the Drivers of Growth
Summary Ghana was, until very recently, a success story in Africa, achieving high and sustained growth and impressive poverty reduction. However, Ghana is now facing major challenges in diversifying its economy, sustaining growth, and making it more inclusive. Most of the new jobs that have been created in the past decade have been in low-earning, low-productivity trade services. Macroeconomic instability, limited diversification and growing inequities in Ghana's labor markets make it harder for the economy to create more jobs, and particularly, better jobs. Employment needs to expand in both urban areas, which will continue to grow rapidly, and rural areas, where poverty is still concentrated. The current fiscal and economic crisis is heightening the need for urgent reforms but limiting the room for maneuver and increasing pressure for a careful prioritization of policy actions. Going forward, Ghana will need to consider an integrated jobs strategy that addresses barriers to the business climate, deficiencies in skills, lack of competitiveness of job-creating sectors, problems with labor mobility, and the need for comprehensive labor market regulation. Ghana needs to diversify its economy through gains in productivity in sectors like agribusiness, transport, construction, energy, and information and communications technology (ICT) services. Productivity needs to be increased also in agriculture, in order to increase the earnings potential for the many poor who still work there. In particular, Ghana's youth and women need help in connecting to these jobs, through relevant skills development and services that target gaps in information about job opportunities. Even with significant effort, most of Ghana's population will continue to work in jobs characterized by low and fluctuating earnings for the foreseeable future, however, and they will need social safety nets that help them manage vulnerability to income shortfalls. More productive and inclusive jobs will help Ghana move to a second phase of structural transformation and develop into a modern middle-income economy
Bibliography Includes bibliographical references
Subject Job creation -- Ghana.
Labor policy -- Ghana.
Labor -- Ghana.
Ghana -- Economic conditions -- 1979-
Form Electronic book
Author Silva, Sara Johansson de, author
ISBN 1464809429 (electronic bk)
9781464809422 (electronic bk)