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Title Striving for better jobs : the challenge of informality in the Middle East and North Africa / Roberta Gatti, Diego F. Angel-Urdinola, Joana Silva, and AndrĂ¡s Bodor
Published Washington, DC : World Bank Publications, 2014
Online access available from:
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Description 1 online resource (xxiv, 327 pages) : illustrations
Series Directions in development. Human development
Directions in development (Washington, D.C.). Human development.
Contents Front Cover; Contents; Preface; Acknowledgments; Contributors; Abbreviations; Overview; Background; Understanding Informality; Figure O.1 Informality and Economic Development; Figures; Informality in MENA: Levels and Trends; Figure O.2 Informality in MENA Compared to Other Regions; Who Are Informal Workers?; Figure O.3 Informality Rates for Selected Non-Gulf Cooperation Council Members; Figure O.4 Annual Growth Rates of Informality; Figure O.5 Informality Rates by Quintile of Per Capita Consumption for Selected Countries
Barriers to Coverage and Policy OptionsNotes; References; Chapter 1 How Large Is Informality and Why Do We Care?; What Is Informality?; How to Measure Informality; Boxes; Box 1.1 Defining Informality; Tables; Table 1.1 Summary of Data and Definitions Used in This Report; Box 1.2 Main Definitions of Relevant Variables and Survey Questions from Data Available in MENA; Figure 1.1 Correlation among Most-Used Informality Indicators; Why Does Informality Matter?; Figure 1.2 Correlations among Different Definitions of Labor Informality (Worker's Side); Figure 1.3 Informality and Economic Development
Figure 1.12 Correlation between Informality and Governance/RegulationFigure 1.13 Correlation between Informality and Education/Demographic Factors; Figure 1.14 Correlation between Informality and Government Size; Figure 1.15 Correlation between Informality and Indirect Labor Costs; Figure 1.16 Percentage Difference in Education and Youth Bulge with Respect to the World Median; Figure 1.17 Percentage Difference in Rural Population and Agricultural Output with Respect to the World Median; Conclusions; Figure 1.18 Percentage Difference in Public Employment with Respect to the World Median; Annex
Figure 1.4 Effect of Informality on GrowthInformality in MENA; Figure 1.5 Employment and Unemployment Rates in MENA; Figure 1.6 Economic Growth and Employment Growth; Figure 1.7 Annual Population Growth Rates (%) (2005-2009); Figure 1.8 Sectoral Contribution to Annual Employment Growth in Typical MENA Country and Selected Other Countries, Average for 2000s; Figure 1.9 Prevalence of Informality in MENA versus Other Regions; Figure 1.10 Informality Rates for Selected Non-GCC Economies; What Causes Informality?; Figure 1.11 Annual Growth Rates of Informality
Figure O.6 Employment Status by Age for Selected Countries, Urban Areas OnlyFigure O.7 Informality Rates by Highest Educational Level Completed; Figure O.8 Informality and Firm Size; Informality among Firms; Figure O.9 Unregistered Firms, by Region; Figure O.10 Highest Level of Education of Managers in Formal and Informal Manufacturing Firms in Egypt, 2009; Informality in MENA: Exclusion or Choice?; Figure O.11 Transitions of Originally Informal Salaried Private Sector Male Workers; Figure O.12 Estimated Formality Premium by Gender in Different Countries
Summary While economic growth has been sustained for a number of years in many countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, this has not resulted in the creation of an adequate number of jobs and has succeeded, at best, in generating low-quality, informal jobs. While there is a great deal of heterogeneity across countries, informality in MENA is widespread, and some countries in the region are amongst the most informal economies in the world. The book looks at informality through a human development angle and focuses specifically on informal employment. In line with this approach, the
Notes Annex Table 1A.1 Sample Economies in the Informality Regression
Bibliography Includes bibliographical references
Notes Print version record
Subject Informal sector (Economics) -- Africa, North.
Informal sector (Economics) -- Middle East.
Labor market -- Africa, North.
Labor market -- Middle East.
Form Electronic book
Author Angel-Urdinola, Diego F.
Gatti, Roberta.
Silva, Joana.
ISBN 082139536X (e-book)
9780821395363 (e-book)
(alk. paper)
(alk. paper)