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Author Benedictow, Ole Jørgen, author

Title The Black Death and later plague epidemics in the Scandinavian countries : perspectives and controversies / Ole J. Benedictow ; managing editor, Katarzyna Michalak ; language editor, Michael M. Brescia
Published Warschau/Berlin : Walter de Gruyter GmbH, 2016
©2016
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Description 1 online resource (736 pages)
Contents Preface -- Postscript -- Bibliography -- Glossary -- 1 Introduction -- Perspectives and Issues -- What is Plague? Some Basic Facts on Contagion, Transmission, and Dissemination -- 1.3 What to Look for and Keep in Mind: The Defining Features of Bubonic Plague and Some Crucial Fact -- 1.3.1 Introduction -- 1.3.2 Defining Features -- 1.3.3 Some Crucial Matters of Fact -- Bibliography -- 1.4 Serious Plague History Under Pressure: The Twelfth Alternative Theory of Historical Plague: Comm -- 1.4.1 Introduction -- 1.4.2 The Purported Functions of Caravans and the Silk Roads in the Transportation of Plague with an -- 1.4.3 Patterns of Spread and Comparative Spread Rates -- 1.4.4 Absence of Evidence is not Evidence of Absence, I: On the Medievalist's Craft and the Fallacy -- 1.4.5 Absence of Evidence is not Evidence of Absence, II: On the Presence of Rats and the Local Pers -- 1.4.6 Absence of Evidence is not Evidence of Absence, III. On the Life and Death of Rats -- 1.4.7 On the Medievalist's Craft and more Fallacies of Reverse Circular Lines of Argument. The Funct -- 1.4.8 The "Reintroductions" that Disappeared -- 1.4.9 The Importance of the Historian's Craft for Understanding the Conquest of Plague and the Means -- Epilogue -- Bibliography -- 1.5 The Triumph of Paleobiology in Historical Plague Research -- 1.5.1 Introduction -- 1.5.2 The Status of Paleobiological Studies, 1998-2014 -- Bibliography -- Bibliography to Table 1.1 -- 2 The Black Death in Norway, 1348-1349 -- 2.1 Fundamentals of Plague Epidemiology -- 2.2 Bubonic Plague and Pneumonic Plague -- 2.3 Long Distance and Short Distance Spread of Plague -- 2.4 Plague Epidemics' Pace of Development and Spread Rates -- 2.5 The Territorial Origin of the Black Death and Its Route to Norway -- 2.6 The Arrival of the Black Death in Oslo
2.7 The Black Death Conquers Østlandet [the "East Country"] in 1349 -- 2.8 The Black Death Arrives in Bergen -- 2.9 The Black Death Comes to Nidaros (Trondheim) -- 2.10 The Black Death Arrives in Agder and Stavanger -- 2.11 The Triumph of Death: How Many People Died in the Black Death in Norway? -- 2.11.1 Introduction -- 2.11.2 The Question of Average Household Size and the Denial of Elementary Facts: Some Consequential -- 2.11.3 Average Household Size, Numbers of Households in the Middle Ages, and Population Size and Dec -- 2.12 Life After the Black Death -- 2.13 The Powers of Spread of the Black Death -- 2.14 Contemporary Understanding of the Causation of Epidemic Disease -- Appendix 1: Plague Epidemics in Norway 1348-1500 and Their Provenience -- Appendix 2: Some Basic Elements of the Medieval Norwegian Agricultural System which Affect Analysis -- Bibliography -- Unpublished Sources -- Bibliography (including published sources and abbreviations) -- 3 The Black Death in Norway: Arrival, Spread, Mortality. Discussions with Birger Lindanger and Hal -- 3.1 Introduction -- 3.2. Lindanger's Views on the Black Death's Arrival and Spread in Norway -- 3.2.1 Introduction: Sources and Source-criticism -- 3.2.2 The Black Death in South-eastern Norway -- 3.2.3 The Chronicle of Hamar: A Source-critical Analysis -- 3.2.4 Spread Rates of the Black Death from Oslo, and the Epidemics in Stavanger and Agder -- 3.2.5 How Lindanger Relates to Problems Arising from His Theory -- 3.2.6 Social and Political Evidence on the Aftermath of the Black Death -- 3.3 Bjørkvik's Views on the Black Death's Routes of Spread and Mortality in Norway -- 3.3.1. The Black Death's Spread to Norway -- 3.3.2 Medical and Clinical Problems -- 3.3.3 Mortality of the Black Death in Norway -- 3.3.4 Closing Comments on the Topics of Arrival, Spread and End of the Black Death in Norway
3.4 On Household Size, Population Size, and the Mortality Caused by the Black Death -- 3.4.1 Introduction -- 3.4.2 Historical Sociology and the Specificity of Medieval Demography: Some Important Perspectives a -- 3.4.3 Estimation of Population Size and the Mortality Wrought by the Black Death in Norway -- Bibliography -- 4 The Black Death in Norway, 1348-49: Sources, Chronology, Spread. Discussion with Kåre Lunden -- 4.1 Introduction -- 4.2 Some Methodological Perspectives -- 4.3 The "Traditional Doctrine" of the Black Death's Spread in Time and Space in Norway-and the Conv -- 4.4 The Chronicle of Hamar: A Brief Source-Critical Recapitulation -- 4.5 On the Time, Original Place of Arrival and Early Spread of the Black Death in Norway -- 4.5.1 Icelandic Annals on the Time and Spread of the Black Death in Norway -- 4.5.2 The Time Bishop Hallvard of Hamar Died and the Time of the Black Death in Hamar -- 4.5.3 The Election and Consecration of Bishop Hallvard's Successor -- 4.5.4 The Time Bishop Thorstein of Bergen Died, the Time of the Black Death in Bergen and in South -- 4.5.5 Lunden's Assertions about King Magnus's Circular Letter: A Closer Look -- 4.5.6 The Bishops: The Living and the Dead on the Morrow of the Black Death -- 4.6 Political and Social Evidence on the Time the Black Death in Norway was Over -- 4.6.1 The Meeting of the Assembly of the Realm in Bergen in June 1350 -- 4.6.2 Social Evidence on the End of Black Death -- 4.7 The Black Death in South-eastern Norway and in Sweden: The Connection -- 4.8 Donations to Religious Institutions by Will or Deed of Gift as Reflections of the Presence of th -- 4.8.1 Introduction: Donations to Religious Institutions in Denmark and Sweden -- 4.8.2 Donations to Norwegian Religious Institutions and the Importance of Source-criticism
4.8.3 Facts or Fiction: The Real History of the Time of the Black Death and its Spread in Eastern No -- Bibliography -- 5 The Spread of the Black Death in Norway: Revisionists, Spread Rates, Alternative Microbiological -- 5.1 Introduction -- 5.2 On the Spread Rates of Plague -- 5.2.1 On the Revisionist Alternative Theories on the Spread Rates of Historical and Modern Plague -- 5.2.2 On the Spread Rates of Historical and Modern Plague -- 5.3 Did Plague Spread in the Winters? -- 5.4 The Alternative Spread Rates of Anthrax, Filoviridal Diseases, and Cohn's Disease -- 5.5 Lunden's Genetic Theory of the Role of Mutations and the Microbiological Identity of Plague of t -- 5.5.1 Part 1. -- 5.5.2 Part 2. Lunden's Views on the Questions of Mutations and Microbiological Identity of Plague Co -- Appendix 1: My Works on the Dynamics of Spread and the Spread Rates of Plague -- Bibliography -- 6 Walløe, Juhasz and the Sociology of Plague -- Bibliography -- 7 Lars Walløe's Human-Flea Theory of Plague Epidemology -- 7.1 Introduction -- 7.2 Short History of the Human-Flea Theory on the Epidemiology of Bubonic Plague -- 7.3 Some Basic Empirical Facts Invalidating the Human-Flea Theory -- 7.3.1 Introduction -- 7.3.2 Prevalence and Levels of Human Bacteraemia (Human Plague Cases as Sources of Infection of Huma -- 7.3.3 Mechanical Transmission -- 7.3.4 Prevalence and Levels of Rat Bacteraemia (Plague Rats as Sources of Infection of Rat Fleas) -- 7.3.5 Blockage of Fleas -- 7.4 Virulence, Lethality, and Immunity: The Basis of Plague Mortality -- 7.4.1 Virulence and Lethality -- 7.4.2 Immunity -- 7.5 Defining Features of Rat-Flea-Borne Bubonic Plague -- 7.5.1 Introduction: The Concept and Uses of Defining Epidemiological Features -- 7.5.2 The Latency Period -- 7.5.3 The Inverse Correlation of Population Density and Infection Rates -- 7.6 Conclusion -- Bibliography
8 Black Rats in the Nordic Scandinavian Countries. Discussion of Papers by Lars Walløe and Anne K. -- 8.1 Introduction: The Bombastry of Advocates of Radical Alternative Theories -- 8.2 The Ecological Habitats and Behavioural Strategies of Black Rats -- 8.2.1 Methodological Introduction: More about the Fallacy of Argumentum ex Silentio, that Absence of -- 8.2.2 The Climate Theory of a Purported Absence of Black Rats, and the Neglect of Evolutionary Theor -- 8.2.3 The Denial that Black Rats Burrow -- 8.2.4 Did the Brown Rats Outcompete the Black Rats? -- 8.3 The Behavioural Strategy of Rats in the Face of Death. Where do Rats Die (So Where Should Archae -- 8.3.1 Methodological Introduction -- 8.3.2 "They do die in unusual [.] and inaccessible places": The Ostensible Absence or Paucity of Bla -- 8.4 History and Distribution of Black Rats in Europe According to Finds of Skeletal Remains -- 8.5 Black Rats in the Nordic Countries: Skeletal Remains and Living Rats -- 8.5.1 Methodological Problems on the Presence of Black Rats in the Nordic Countries -- 8.5.2 Finds of Pre-Modern (Pre-1660) Skeletal Remains of Black Rats in Sweden and Denmark -- 8.5.3 Urban Finds of Medieval Rat Bones in Norway -- 8.5.4 Rural Finds of Skeletal Remains of Medieval and Pre-Modern Black Rats in Norway -- 8.5.5 The Plague Epidemic in Bergen 1565-1566. Without Rats? -- 8.6 The General Presence of Black Rats in Sweden and Finland and the Time and Causes of Their Decli -- 8.6.1 Introduction: The Functions of Disregard of Early Good Research -- 8.6.2 The Swedish Species Information Centre/ArtDatabanken on the Historical Presence of Black Rats -- 8.7 Early-Phase Transmission? A Few Preliminary Comments (see Chapter 12) -- Bibliography -- 9 The Relevance of Recent Theories on the Microbiological Identity and Epidemiology of Plague for Sc -- 9.1 Introduction -- 9.2 What Disease was Plague?
Notes Description based on publisher supplied metadata and other sources
Subject Black Death -- Scandinavia -- History.
Plague -- Scandinavia -- History.
Epidemics -- Scandinavia -- History.
Diseases and history -- Scandinavia.
Plague -- history.
Plague -- epidemiology.
Disease Outbreaks -- history.
Insect Vectors -- pathogenicity.
Rats -- parasitology.
History, Medieval.
Scandinavian and Nordic Countries -- epidemiology.
Form Electronic book
ISBN 9788376560472 (electronic bk.)
8376560476
9788376560465
8376560468