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RNA, Messenger   11
RNA, Messenger -- analysis.   2
 

RNA, Messenger, Editing -- See RNA Editing


A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE)
  1
RNA, Messenger -- genetics.   4
RNA, Messenger -- metabolism.   2
 

RNA, Messenger, Polyadenylated -- See RNA, Messenger


RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm
  1
 

RNA, Messenger, Precursors -- See RNA Precursors


RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production
  1
 

RNA, Messenger, Splicing -- See RNA Splicing


The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm
  1
RNA -- metabolism.   7
RNA -- Metabolism -- Regulation. : Post-transcriptional regulation by STAR proteins : control of RNA metabolism in development and disease / edited by Talila Volk, Karen Artzt  2010 1
RNA -- Methodology. : RNA processing. Part A, General methods / edited by James E. Dahlberg, John N. Abelson  1989 1
 

RNA, Micro -- See MicroRNAs


Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing
  1
 

RNA Modification, Post-Transcriptional -- See RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional


Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein
  1
 

RNA Modifications, Post-Transcriptional -- See RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional


Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein
  1
 

RNA N-Glycosidase -- See Ribosome Inactivating Proteins


N-Glycosidases that remove adenines from RIBOSOMAL RNA, depurinating the conserved alpha-sarcin loop of 28S RIBOSOMAL RNA. They often consist of a toxic A subunit and a binding lectin B subunit. They may be considered as PROTEIN SYNTHESIS INHIBITORS. They are found in many PLANTS and have cytotoxic and antiviral activity
  1
 

RNA, Non-Coding -- See RNA, Untranslated


RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope
  1
 

RNA, Non-Peptide-Coding -- See RNA, Untranslated


RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope
  1
 

RNA, Non-Polyadenylated -- See RNA


A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
  1
 

RNA, Non-Protein-Coding -- See RNA, Untranslated


RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope
  1
 

RNA, Noncoding -- See RNA, Untranslated


RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope
  1
 

RNA, Nontranslated -- See RNA, Untranslated


RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope
  1
 

RNA Nucleases -- See Ribonucleases


Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-
  1
 

RNA nucleotidyltransferases -- See RNA polymerases


  1
RNA -- Periodicals   5
RNA -- physiology.   4
 

RNA, Piwi-Interacting -- See RNA, Small Interfering


Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions
  1
RNA, Plant -- genetics.   2
 

RNA Pol II -- See RNA Polymerase II


A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6
  1
 

RNA, Polyadenylated -- See RNA, Messenger


RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm
  1
 

RNA, Polyadenylated Messenger -- See RNA, Messenger


RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm
  1
 

RNA Polymerase -- See DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases


Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
  1
 

RNA Polymerase B -- See RNA Polymerase II


A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6
  1
 

RNA Polymerase, DNA-Directed -- See DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases


Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
  1
RNA Polymerase II.   2
RNA Polymerase II -- metabolism. : The basal transcription machinery for RNA polymerase II / H.T. Marc Timmers  2014 1
RNA Polymerase Sigma 54 -- metabolism. : Nucleotide dependent functioning of bacterial enhancer binding proteins, activators of sigma54 RNA polymerase / Martin Buck and and Xiaodong Zhang  2016 1
 

RNA Polymerases -- See DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases


Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
  1
RNA polymerases.   12
RNA polymerases -- Congresses. : Genetics and evolution of RNA polymerase, tRNA, and ribosomes : [proceedings of the Oji International Seminar on Genetic and Evolutionary Aspects of Transcriptional and Translational Apparatus held at Hokkaido, 1979 / sponsored by Japan Society of the Promotion of Science] ; edited by Syōzō Ōsawa ... [and others]  1980 1
 

RNA Polymerases, DNA-Dependent -- See DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases


Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
  1
 

RNA Polymerases, DNA-Directed -- See DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases


Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
  1
RNA polymerases -- Evolution -- Congresses. : Genetics and evolution of RNA polymerase, tRNA, and ribosomes : [proceedings of the Oji International Seminar on Genetic and Evolutionary Aspects of Transcriptional and Translational Apparatus held at Hokkaido, 1979 / sponsored by Japan Society of the Promotion of Science] ; edited by Syōzō Ōsawa ... [and others]  1980 1
 

RNA Precursor -- See RNA Precursors


RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production
  1
RNA Precursors. : Polyadenylation of mRNA precursors : mechanism, regulation and connections with other cellular processes / James L. Manley  2007 1
RNA Precursors -- metabolism. : Pre-mRNA splicing / Timothy W. Nilsen  2007 1
 

RNA Primary Transcript -- See RNA Precursors


RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production
  1
RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional.   4
RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional -- physiology.   2
 

RNA Processing, Posttranscriptional -- See RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional


Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein
  1
 

RNA-protein binding -- See RNA-protein interactions


  1
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