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System, Renin-Angiotensin -- See Renin-Angiotensin System


A BLOOD PRESSURE regulating system of interacting components that include RENIN; ANGIOTENSINOGEN; ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME; ANGIOTENSIN I; ANGIOTENSIN II; and angiotensinase. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, acts on angiotensinogen, an alpha-2 globulin produced by the liver, forming ANGIOTENSIN I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, contained in the lung, acts on angiotensin I in the plasma converting it to ANGIOTENSIN II, an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes contraction of the arteriolar and renal VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, leading to retention of salt and water in the KIDNEY and increased arterial blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of ALDOSTERONE from the ADRENAL CORTEX, which in turn also increases salt and water retention in the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme also breaks down BRADYKININ, a powerful vasodilator and component of the KALLIKREIN-KININ SYSTEM
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System, Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone -- See Renin-Angiotensin System


A BLOOD PRESSURE regulating system of interacting components that include RENIN; ANGIOTENSINOGEN; ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME; ANGIOTENSIN I; ANGIOTENSIN II; and angiotensinase. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, acts on angiotensinogen, an alpha-2 globulin produced by the liver, forming ANGIOTENSIN I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, contained in the lung, acts on angiotensin I in the plasma converting it to ANGIOTENSIN II, an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes contraction of the arteriolar and renal VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, leading to retention of salt and water in the KIDNEY and increased arterial blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of ALDOSTERONE from the ADRENAL CORTEX, which in turn also increases salt and water retention in the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme also breaks down BRADYKININ, a powerful vasodilator and component of the KALLIKREIN-KININ SYSTEM
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System, Reproductive -- See Genitalia


The external and internal organs involved in the functions of REPRODUCTION
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System, Respiratory -- See Respiratory System


The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about
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System safety -- See Also Industrial safety



--subdivisions Safety appliances and Safety measures under subjects, e.g. Cotton machinery--Safety appliances; Construction industry--Safety measures
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System safety.   58
System safety -- Congresses.   17
System safety -- Decision making. : Managing safety of heterogeneous systems : decisions under uncertainties and risks / Yuri Ermoliev, Marek Makowski, Kurt Marti, editors  2012 1
System safety -- Encyclopedias. : Concise encyclopedia of system safety : definition of terms and concepts / Clifton A Ericson II  2011 1
System safety -- Mathematical models. : Risk management technologies : with logic and probabilistic models / E.D. Solozhentsev ; translated from Russian by Yegor V. Komarov  2012 1
System safety -- Mathematics. : Quantitative risk assessment (QRA) for natural hazards / edited by Nasim Uddin, Alfredo H.S. Ang  2011 1
System safety -- Periodicals   4
System safety -- Simulation methods -- Congresses. : Model-based safety and assessment : 4th International Symposium, IMBSA 2014, Munich, Germany, October 27-29, 2014 : proceedings / Frank Ortmeier, Antoine Rauzy (Eds.)  2014 1
System safety -- Statistics. : Satisfying safety goals by probabilistic risk assessment / Hiromitsu Kumamoto  2007 1
 

System, Second Messenger -- See Second Messenger Systems


Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system
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System sensitivity theory (Mathematics) -- See Sensitivity theory (Mathematics)


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System, Signal Transduction -- See Signal Transduction


The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway
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System simulation -- See Simulation methods



--subdivision Simulation methods under topical headings, e.g. English language--Study and teaching--Simulation methods; Management--Simulation methods; Social sciences--Simulation methods
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System, Social Support -- See Psychosocial Support Systems


Organized efforts to address ongoing psychological and social problems of individuals, their partners, families and caregivers
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System software -- See Systems software


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System, Solar -- See Solar System


The group of celestial bodies, including the EARTH, orbiting around and gravitationally bound by the sun. It includes eight planets, one minor planet, and 34 natural satellites, more than 1,000 observed comets, and thousands of lesser bodies known as MINOR PLANETS (asteroids) and METEOROIDS. (From Academic American Encyclopedia, 1983)
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System, Stomatognathic -- See Stomatognathic System


The mouth, teeth, jaws, pharynx, and related structures as they relate to mastication, deglutition, and speech
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System-structure grammar -- See Systemic grammar


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  System theory -- 13 Related Subjects   13
System theory.   340
System theory -- Asymptotic theory. : Computation and asymptotics / Rudrapatna V. Ramnath  2012 1
System theory -- Congresses.   48
System theory -- Encyclopedias.   2
System theory -- History.   4
System theory -- History -- 19th century. : Zellen, Wellen, Systeme : Eine Genealogie systemischen Denkens, 1880-1980  2016 1
System theory -- History -- 20th century. : Zellen, Wellen, Systeme : Eine Genealogie systemischen Denkens, 1880-1980  2016 1
System theory in literature.   4
System theory -- Mathematical models.   10
System theory -- Mathematical models -- Congresses.   2
System theory -- Mathematics.   3
System theory -- Methodology -- Congresses.   2
System theory -- Periodicals   19
System theory -- Philosophy. : Psychoanalysis and complexity / editor, Gabriele Lenti  2014 1
System theory -- Psychological aspects   2
System theory -- Religious aspects -- Islam : The Islamic worldview / Masadul Alam Choudhury  2018 1
System theory -- Research. : Engaging in Systems Science to Promote Health Equity / Metcalf  2017 1
System theory -- Research -- Congresses. : Systemics of emergence : research and development / edited by Gianfranco Minati, Eliano Pessa, and Mario Abram  2006 1
SCIENCE -- System Theory.   56
System theory -- Security measures -- Congresses.   2
System theory -- Social aspects   5
System theory -- Social aspects -- Soviet Union. : The origins and development of systems thinking in the Soviet Union : political and philosophical controversies from Bogdanov and Bukharin to present-day reevaluations / Ilmari Susiluoto  1982 1
System theory -- Textbooks. : Max Plus at Work : Modeling and Analysis of Synchronized Systems: A Course on Max-Plus Algebra and Its Applications  2014 1
 

System, TNM Staging -- See Neoplasm Staging


Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient
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System uncertainty -- See Uncertainty (Information theory)


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System, Urogenital -- See Urogenital System


All the organs involved in reproduction and the formation and release of URINE. It includes the kidneys, ureters, BLADDER; URETHRA, and the organs of reproduction - ovaries, UTERUS; FALLOPIAN TUBES; VAGINA; and CLITORIS in women and the testes; SEMINAL VESICLES; PROSTATE; seminal ducts; and PENIS in men
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