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Book Cover
Author Bray, Mark, 1952- author

Title Shadow education : private supplementary tutoring and its implications for policy makers in Asia / Mark Bray and Chad Lykins ; Asian Development Bank
Published Mandaluyong, Philippines : Asian Development Bank, 2012
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Description 1 online resource (113 pages) : illustrations
Series CERC monograph series in comparative and international education and development ; no. 9
CERC monograph series in comparative and international education and development ; no. 9
Contents Cover; Contents; Lists of Figures, Tables, and Boxes; Preface; Acknowledgments; Abbreviations and Acronyms; Executive Summary; Introduction; Mapping the Landscape; Enrollment Rates; Intensity and Demographic Variations; Subjects and Modes; Costs; Demand and Supply; Drivers of Demand; Diversity of Supply; Impact of Shadow Education; Academic Achievement; Broader Skills and Values; Efficiencies and Inefficiencies; Inequalities and Social Cohesion; Implications for Policy Makers; Securing Data and Monitoring Trends; Reforming Assessment and Selection Systems; Changing the Curriculum
12. Proportions of Households with Positive Expenditures on Tutoring, Sri Lanka13. Proportions of Students Receiving Private Tutoring, Viet Nam, 1997/98; Boxes; 1. Cross-National Indicators of Private Tutoring; 2. A Longstanding Concern; 3. Alarm about the Expansion of Private Tutoring in India; 4. Dazzling Work Ethic, Gritty Faith, and Financial Realities in Viet Nam; 5. Culture and the Tiger Mothers; 6. Finding the Right Tutor in Singapore; 7. More Tutoring, Less Learning; 8. Limiting the Duration of Shadow Education in the Republic of Korea; 9. Shadow Education as a Positional Good
3. Overlap of Commercial and Educational Law in Regulation of Private TutoringTables; 1. Shadow Education Participation by Region and Level of Education, Republic of Korea, 2008; 2. Subjects in which Grade 10 Students Received Private Tutoring, Sri Lanka, 2009; 3. Subjects in which Senior Secondary Students Received Private Lessons, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, and Tajikistan, 2005/06; 4. Proportions of Children Aged 3-16 Receiving Private Tutoring by Income Quintile, Rural India (2007/08) and Rural Pakistan (2010); 5. Household Expenditures on Tutoring by Ethnic Group, Malaysia, 2004/05
6. Shadow Education Participation and Expenditure by Income Group and Level of Education, Republic of Korea, 20087. Household Costs for Secondary Schooling, Bangladesh, 2005; 8. Yearly Costs per Person for Private Tutoring, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, and Tajikistan; 9. Reasons for Receiving Private Tutoring, Sri Lanka, 2009; 10. Factors that Contributed to "Heating up" of Juku Attendance, Japan (Parents' Response Rates); 11. Teachers' Views of the Influence of Cram Schools on Children's Mathematics Learning, Taipei, China
Harnessing TechnologyDevising and Implementing Regulations; Finding Partners; Learning from the Shadow; Conclusions; Driving Forces; Diversity in Patterns; Inequalities and Inefficiencies; The Way Ahead; Appendix: Regulations on Private Tutoring; References; Notes on the Authors; CERC Monograph Series in Comparative and International Education and Development; Figures; 1. Average Monthly Household Expenditures on Shadow Education, Republic of Korea, 1997-2010; 2. Different Forms of Shadow Education in the Republic of Korea, 2010
Bibliography Includes bibliographical references
Notes Print version record
Subject Tutors and tutoring -- Asia.
Form Electronic book
Author Lykins, Chad, author
Asian Development Bank, issuing body
ISBN 9290926597 (electronic bk.)
9789290926597 (electronic bk.)