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Book Cover
E-book
Author Reitherman, Robert, 1950-

Title Earthquakes and engineers : an international history / Robert K. Reitherman
Published Reston, Va. : ASCE Press, [2012]
©2012
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Description 1 online resource (xiii, 749 pages) : illustrations
Contents Machine generated contents note: Definition of "Earthquake Engineering" -- Engineers and Scientists -- Earthquake Engineering and Earthquake-Resistant Construction -- Scope -- Why This Book? -- 1. Approaches to Earthquake Engineering History -- Earthquake Engineering Lore Can Be Fascinating, yet Factual -- Value of Thinking -- Adding Breadth to Engineering -- Credit Where Credit Is Due -- History as a Way of Thinking about the Future -- Past Ideas and Developments May Still Be Useful Today -- Chronology Vis-a-Vis History -- History as a Sieve -- Potential Sources of Bias -- Why the Emphasis on the Early Years? -- End of Earthquake Engineering History? -- 2. Complexities of Earthquake Engineering -- Similarities and Differences with Other Engineering Disciplines -- Risk -- Inelasticity and Nonlinear Behavior -- Dynamics -- 3. Ancient Understanding and Misunderstanding -- Mythological Beliefs: Supernatural Explanations for a Natural Phenomenon -- China -- India -- Japan -- Africa -- New Zealand -- Greece -- Middle East -- Fiji -- Mexico -- North American Indians -- Limited Accomplishments from Ancient Times -- 4. Beginnings of the Modern Scientific Approach: Renaissance to 1850 -- Development of Geology as a Science -- Galileo, Newton, Hooke: The Beginnings of Physics and Engineering -- Earthquake-Resistant Construction Traditions in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries -- Civil Engineering Development as a Prerequisite to Earthquake Engineering -- 5. First Seismologists and Earthquake Engineers: The Nineteenth Century -- Robert Mallet, the First Earthquake Engineer -- Japan in the Meiji Period -- University of Tokyo -- John Milne: The Foremost Early Seismologist -- Ayrton, Perry, Ewing, Knott, Gray, and Mendenhall -- Development of Seismology Outside of Japan -- Intensity, an Early Tool of Seismologists and Engineers -- Understanding Faults and the Generation of Earthquakes -- Steel and Reinforced Concrete Join the Traditional Construction Materials -- Moment-Resisting Frames, Braced Frames, Walls, and Diaphragms -- Construction Vocabulary in Place, but Lacking Syntax -- Lack of Quantitative Measures of Seismic Loads -- Static Analysis of a Dynamic Phenomenon -- Many Unsolved Problems -- 6. 1900 -- 1940: Poised for Further Development but Lacking Essential Analytical Tools -- Earthquake Engineering in Japan -- Developing "Surficial" Seismology -- Research and Practice Initiatives after the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake -- 1908 Messina -- Reggio Earthquake -- 1910 Cartago, Costa Rica, Earthquake: An Early Recognition of the Vulnerability of Unreinforced Masonry -- 1923 Kanto, Japan, Earthquake: The First Test of Seismically Analyzed and Designed Buildings -- Seismologists Develop the First Estimates of Future Earthquakes: Where, How Big, and How Often -- Magnitude Becomes a Useful Tool for Seismologists and Engineers Alike -- Earthquakes of the 1930s Bring Codes to India, Pakistan, New Zealand, the United States, Chile, and Turkey -- Soil Engineering Develops -- Measurements of Ground Shaking and Attempts by Engineers to Analyze Those Measurements -- Assessing the State of Practice in 1940 -- 7. 1940 -- 1960: Major Advances in Understanding and Design -- Laboratory and Field Instrumentation -- Laboratory Testing Apparatus -- Aeronautics, Atomic and Other Bombs, World War II, and the Cold War -- Tsunamis Become a Recognized Research and Risk Reduction Topic -- Dynamics Comes to Soils and Foundation Engineering -- How Severely Can the Ground Shake? -- Ductility Becomes a Prime Goal to Achieve Deformation Capacity, Rather Than Strength Capacity -- Duet of Ground Motion and Structural Response -- Longevity of the Response Spectrum and Equivalent Lateral Force Methods -- First World Conference on Earthquake Engineering -- Internationalization of the Field -- Breakthrough in the Earth Sciences: Plate Tectonics Theory -- 8. 1960 -- 2000: Computers, Instruments, and Apparatus Provide Needed Analysis and Design Tools -- Computers -- Computer Software Development -- Internet -- Instruments for Measuring the Behavior and Properties of the Ground and Structures -- Simulation of Earthquakes with Shake Tables, Reaction Walls, forced Vibration, Centrifuges, and Other Apparatus -- 9. 1960 -- 2000: The Construction Industry Introduces New Innovations and Challenges -- New Structural Systems -- Capacity Design Method -- Capacity Spectrum, Pushover, and Displacement-Based Methods -- Improvements in Ductility -- Seismic Isolation -- Damping Devices -- Active Control -- Architectural Trends Challenge the Engineers -- 10. 1960 -- 2000: Universities and Research Institutes Provide the Well-Educated Experts for a Growing Field -- First Earthquake Engineering Professors Teach Themselves a New Subject -- Japan -- United States -- Italy -- Turkey -- India -- New Zealand -- China -- Chile -- Canada -- Technology of Teaching -- Social Scientists Study Earthquakes -- 11. 1960 -- 2000: Special Design Problems Provide Continuing Motivation for Innovation -- Tall Buildings -- Hospitals -- Nonstructural Components Become More Extensive and More Damageable -- Retrofitting to Reduce Existing Risks -- Infrastructure Receives Specialized Attention -- 12. 1960 -- 2000: Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering Enters Its Growth Phase -- Liquefaction, Surface Fault Rupture, Landslides -- Effects of Soil on Shaking -- Seismic Zonation -- Signs of a Maturing Discipline -- 13. 1960 -- 2000: Probabilistic Approaches -- Earthquake Loss Estimation -- Average Loss, Damage Probability Matrices, and Fragility Curves -- Probabilistic Approaches to Ground-Motion Mapping -- Probabilistic Definitions of Safety -- 14. 1960 -- 2000: Increasing Funding, Regulations, and Public Expectations Provide Support for a Maturing Field -- Rising Expectations -- Mitigation of Risk Versus Elimination of Risk -- Spread of Earthquake Construction Regulations -- Disasters Continue to Be the Major Motivators -- Earthquake Engineering Is Freely Imported and Exported -- Growth in the Literature -- Solving Problems Versus Identifying Problems -- Global Attitude Toward Earthquake Risk -- All the Eggs in One Basket -- In Search of the Seismic Plimsoll Mark -- From Empiricism to Theory -- Epilogue: The Future of Earthquake Engineering History -- Disciplinary Backgrounds of Historical Investigators -- Oral Histories -- Manuscripts, Documents, and Images -- Collections of Artifacts: Construction Samples, Laboratory Apparatus and Specimens, and Instruments -- Museums of Earthquake Engineering -- Unanswered Questions -- Conclusion
Bibliography Includes bibliographical references and index
Subject Earthquake engineering -- History.
Genre/Form History.
Form Electronic book
ISBN 0784476357 (electronic bk.)
9780784476352 (electronic bk.)
(paperback)
(paperback)