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Book Cover
E-book
Author Roland, Gérard, 1954-

Title Development economics / Gérard Roland, University of California, Berkeley
Published Boston : Pearson, [2014]
Online access available from:
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Description 1 online resource (xxi, 625 pages): color illustrations
Series Pearson series in economics
Pearson series in economics.
Contents Machine generated contents note: ch. 1 Development Gap -- Facts about the Development Gap -- Income Gap -- Poverty Gap -- Health Gap -- Education Gap -- Urbanization Gap -- Why Is There a Development Gap? -- Evolving Development Gap -- Differences in Economic Growth -- Population Growth -- Stories of Economic Catch-Up and Decline -- Historical Catch-Up of Japan and Germany -- Economic Decline -- Important Questions -- Chapter Summary -- Key Terms -- Review Questions -- ch. 2 Poverty and Inequality -- Poverty Measurement and Comparisons -- Measuring Poverty -- How to Compare Poverty Levels -- Poverty Rates in Practice -- Measurements and Comparisons of Income Inequality -- Measuring Income Ineguality -- Economic Determinants of Inequality -- Education and Income Inequality -- Land Ownership and Income Inequality -- Inequality, Growth, and Development -- Kuznets Hypothesis -- Income Inequality and Economic Growth -- Inequality over Time -- Chapter Summary -- Key Terms -- Review Questions -- ch. 3 Population Growth -- Population over Time and the Demographic Transition -- Exponentially Growing Population -- Evolution of Population Growth Rates -- Determinants of Population Growth -- Fertility, Mortality, and Birth and Death Rates -- Age Distribution -- Determinants of Fertility Rates -- Economics of Fertility Choices -- Fertility Choices and Institutions -- Fertility Choices and the Demographic Transition -- Family Planning and Population Growth -- Family Planning Policies -- Externalities and the Economics of Family Planning -- Chapter Summary -- Key Terms -- Review Questions -- ch. 4 Economic Growth -- Growth and Factors of Production -- Factors of Production -- Production Function -- Factor Productivity -- Factor Shares -- Growth Accounting -- Neoclassical Solow Growth Model -- Constant Returns to Scale and Diminishing Marginal Products -- Equilibrium in the Solow Model -- Steady State in the Solow Growth Model -- Growth Inside and Outside the Steady State -- Technological Progress and the Steady State -- Effect of Different Savings Rates -- Differences in Human Capital -- Income Convergence -- Endogenous Growth Theory -- Boundless Knowledge-Based Growth -- Knowledge as a Non-Rival Good -- Basic Equations of the Romer Model -- Romer Model versus the Solow Model -- Intellectual Property Rights and Technology Transfers -- Empirical Analysis of Economic Growth -- Geography and Growth -- Institutions and Growth -- Chapter Summary -- Key Terms -- Review Questions -- ch. 5 Structural Change and Development Strategies -- Structural Change -- From an Agricultural to an Industrial Economy -- From an Industrial to a Service Economy -- Structural Change across Industrial Sectors -- Lewis Model of Structural Change -- Traditional and Modern Sectors -- Transfer of Labor from the Traditional to the Modern Sector -- Lewis Model in Practice -- Role of Institutions -- Harris-Todaro Model of Rural to Urban Migration -- Harris-Todaro Model and the Migration Equilibrium -- Implications of the Harris-Todaro Model -- Development Strategies: Sectoral Growth -- Balanced and Unbalanced Growth -- Big Push Theories -- Development Strategies: Import Substitution versus Export Promotion -- Import Substitution and the Prebisch-Singer Hypothesis -- Industrialization and the Protection of Infant Industries -- Export Promotion and the Asian Miracle -- Foreign Aid Controversy -- Sachs and the Argument for Foreign Aid -- Easterly and the Skeptics' View -- What Conclusions Should We Draw about Foreign Aid? -- Chapter Summary -- Key Terms -- Review Questions -- ch. 6 International Trade and Exchange Rates -- World Trade Evolution and Developing Countries -- Increased Openness of Developed and Developing Economies -- Diverse Trade Performance across Regions -- Evolution of Trade Specialization in Developing Countries -- Theory of Comparative Advantage -- Benefits of Exchange and Specialization -- Japanese DVD Players and Chinese Shirts: Comparative Advantage in Action -- Factor Endowments and Comparative Advantage -- Comparative Advantage and Patterns of Trade -- Trade Specialization and Export Price Risk -- Politics of Trade -- Winners and Losers in International Trade -- Collective Action Failure -- "Give and Take" -- Costs of Trade Barriers -- Protectionism and Tariffs -- Nontariff Barriers -- Trade Institutions: Bilateral versus Multilateral -- Multilateral Trade Avoids Trade Diversion -- Multilateral Trade Agreements Are Politically Easier to Achieve -- World Trade Organization -- Exchange-Rate Policies in Developing Countries -- Degrees of Convertibility -- Fixed and Floating Exchange-Rate Regimes -- Chapter Summary -- Key Terms -- Review Questions -- ch. 7 Institutions and Economic Development -- What Are Institutions? -- Formal Institutions -- Informal Institutions -- Interactions between Institutions -- What Do Institutions Do? -- Informational Problems -- Hold-Up Problem -- Commitment Problem -- Cooperation Problem -- Coordination Problem -- Persistence of Inefficient Institutions -- Functionalist Fallacy -- Chapter Summary -- Key Terms -- Review Questions -- ch. 8 Markets and Hierarchies -- Central Planning Debate -- Theoretical Argument against Central Planning -- Lange's Rebuttal -- Hayek's Fundamental Criticism -- Central Planning Experiment -- Managerial Incentives under Central Planning -- Central Planning and Shortage -- Economic Behavior under Shortage -- Worker Behavior -- Complexity, Coordination, and the Slow Demise of Central Planning -- Prices versus Quantities -- Coordination Mistakes Using Price and Quantity Signals -- Institutions and the Boundaries of the Firm -- Trade-Off between Efficiency and Holdup -- Less Vertical Integration with Better Institutions -- Chapter Summary -- Key Terms -- Review Questions -- ch. 9 Political Institutions -- Political Regimes -- Economic Effects of an Autocracy versus a Democracy -- Theory of Autocracy -- Theory of Democracy -- Autocracy and Democracy Compared -- Political Institutions in a Democracy -- Presidential and Parliamentary Democracies -- Electoral Rules -- Economic Effects of Democratic Institutions -- Political Institutions in an Autocracy -- Communist Regimes -- Nazism and Fascism -- Waves of Democratization -- Theories of Democratization -- Income and Democracy -- Education and Democracy -- Inequality, Social Conflict, and Democracy -- Chapter Summary -- Key Terms -- Review Questions -- ch. 10 Legal and Fiscal Institutions -- Legal Institutions -- Differences between the Common-Law and Civil-Law Systems -- Economic Effects of Different Legal Systems -- Controversies over the Importance of Common and Civil Law -- Fiscal Institutions -- Taxation in Developing Countries -- Determinants of Tax Structure -- Why Does Taxation Differ between Developed and Developing Countries? -- Chapter Summary -- Key Terms -- Review Questions -- ch. 11 Culture -- Measuring Culture -- World Values Survey -- Schwartz's Cultural Mappings -- Hofstede's Index of Individualism and Collectivism -- Culture's Effect on Institutions -- Culture and the Quality of Democracy -- Culture and Norms of Governance -- Culture and Contract Enforcement -- Cultural Obstacles to Economic Development -- Egalitarian Norms and Development -- Religious Taboos on Interest -- Islam and Inheritance Laws -- Effects of Culture -- Religiosity and Growth -- Religious Beliefs and Trust -- Culture and Thrift -- Pitfalls to Avoid in Research on Culture -- Chapter Summary -- Key Terms -- Review Questions -- ch
12 Rural Land Rights and Contracts -- Worldwide Land Distribution and Land Contracts -- Properties of Land Contracts -- Farmer Ownership -- Communal Ownership -- Fixed Land Rental -- Sharecropping -- Labor Contracts -- Economic Effects of Land Contracts -- Communal and Private Ownership -- Sharecropping Compared to Privately Owned Farms -- Sharecropping Compared to Fixed Rental Contracts -- Plantations and Slave Labor -- Plantations and Privately Owned Family Farms -- Institutions and Patterns of Land Inequality and Land Contracts -- Land Reform -- Experience of Land Reform -- Obstacles to Land Reform -- Effects of Land Reform -- Chapter Summary -- Key Terms -- Review Questions -- ch. 13 Property Rights and Efficiency in Urban Areas -- Property Rights and the Informal Sector -- High Transaction Costs in the Informal Sector -- Institutional Obstacles to Entry in the Formal Sector -- Economic Effects of Titling -- Institutions and Property Rights Protection: Lessons from Transition Economies -- Informal Sector and Institutional Quality -- Property Rights, Investment, and Market Development -- Privatization -- From Nationalization to Privatization -- Privatization Goals and Problems -- Methods of Privatization in Developing Countries -- Privatization Outcomes -- Chapter Summary -- Key Terms -- Review Questions -- ch. 14 Market Development -- Institutions and Market Development -- Taking Markets for Granted -- Specific Problems of Market Development in Poor Countries -- Business Networks in Development -- Emergence of Markets in Transition Countries -- Output Fall in Central and Eastern Europe -- China and the Dual-Track System -- Lessons from the Effects of Transition on Market Development -- Rural Markets and the Monopsony Problem -- Monopsony and the Hold-Up Problem -- Monopsonies in Developing Countries -- Possible Solutions to the Monopsony Problem
Note continued: Market Integration -- Communication Obstacles to Market Integration -- Transportation Obstacles to Market Integration -- Regulatory Obstacles to Market Integration -- Famines -- Amartya Sen's Analysis of Famine -- Famines and Democracy -- Chapter Summary -- Key Terms -- Review Questions -- ch. 15 Role of Credit Markets in Development -- Demand for Credit in Developing Economies -- Theory of Credit Markets in Development -- Financing an Entrepreneur in Mumbai -- Adverse Selection and Credit Rationing -- Moral Hazard and Collateral -- Moral Hazard and Monitoring -- Monitoring and Variation in Interest Rates -- Dealing with Default -- Credit Constraints in Developing Countries -- Difficulty of Measuring Credit Constraints -- Exploiting the Indian Priority Lending Reform -- Microfinance -- How Does Microcredit Work? -- Incentive Properties of Microcredit -- Other Forms of Microfinance -- Is Microfinance Profitable? -- Evaluating Microfinance -- Chapter Summary -- Key Terms -- Review Questions -- ch. 16 Health Care Delivery in Developing Countries -- Historical Perspective: The Epidemiological Transition -- Measuring Health -- Self-Reported Health Status -- Self-Reported Symptoms -- Reporting Daily Activities -- Nutrient Intake -- Anthropometric Measures -- Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY) -- Diseases and Development -- HIV -- Diarrheal Diseases -- Malaria -- Worms -- Tuberculosis -- Cheap Drugs and Development -- Why Pharmaceutical Companies Spend So Little on Developing Countries -- Advance Market Commitment -- Costs of Vaccine Commitments for Developing Countries -- Health and Income -- Does Better Health Lead to Higher Incomes? -- Does More Income Improve Health? -- Institutions and the Provision of Health Care -- Variable Quality of Health Care Systems -- Corruption in the Health Care Sector -- Chapter Summary -- Key Terms -- Review Questions -- ch. 17 Delivering Education in Developing Countries -- Measuring the Education Gap -- Primary School Gap -- Secondary-School Gap -- Educational Gender Gap -- Educational Achievements -- Issue of Education Quality -- Returns to Education in Developing Countries -- Externalities of Education -- Role of Government in Education -- Empirical Estimates of the Returns to Education -- Institutions and Education in Developing Countries -- Why Is There Child Labor and Should It Be Banned? -- Indian Caste System and Educational Choices -- What Reforms Can Improve Education? -- Fighting Teacher Absenteeism -- Are Incentives for Teachers Effective? -- Decentralization -- Vouchers -- Reducing Education Costs -- Reducing the Educational Gender Gap -- Chapter Summary -- Key Terms -- Review Questions -- ch. 18 Delivering Infrastructure in Developing Countries -- State of Infrastructure in Developing Countries -- Inequality of Access to Infrastructure -- Institutions for Infrastructure Provision -- Development Effects of Infrastructure Investment -- Effect of Infrastructure Investment on Growth -- Benefits of Transportation Infrastructure -- Costs and Benefits of Dams -- White Elephants -- Investment Risk and the Cost of Capital in Infrastructure -- Cost of Capital -- Estimates of the Cost of Infrastructure Investment -- Geography and Infrastructure -- Institutional Aspects of Infrastructure -- Regulatory Reform -- Decentralization -- Fighting Corruption in Road Construction -- Chapter Summary -- Key Terms -- Review Questions -- ch. 19 Corruption -- What Is Corruption? -- Measuring Corruption -- Objective Measures of Corruption -- Subjective Measures of Corruption -- Greasing the Wheels or Rotting the Fruit Basket? -- Corruption and Growth -- Why Are Some Countries More Corrupt than Others? -- Development and Corruption -- Political Institutions and Corruption -- Legal Institutions and Corruption -- Natural Resources, Trade, and Corruption -- Culture and Corruption -- Different Cultures, Their Various Social Norms, and Corruption -- Disentangling Culture from Other Institutional Causes of Corruption -- Difficulty of Fighting Corruption -- Few Success Stories, but Can We Generalize? -- Higher Pay for Civil Servants: Does It Work? -- Why Is Fighting Corruption So Difficult? -- Chapter Summary -- Key Term -- Review Questions -- Appendix -- ch. 20 Conflict -- Theoretical Explanations of Conflict -- Misjudging Your Rival -- Deals That Aren't Worth the Paper on Which They Are Written -- Empirical Determinants of Conflict -- Why Do Civil Wars Start? -- Greed versus Grievance -- What Is the Causal Link between Conflict and Development? -- Economic Effects of Conflict -- Long-Term Effects of War -- Long-Term Effect of Hiroshima and Nagasaki -- Long-Term Effects of Bombing Vietnam -- Sierra Leone's Civil War -- Chapter Summary -- Key Terms -- Review Questions -- Appendix Econometric Appendix -- Some Basic Statistical Concepts -- Mean, Variance, and Standard Deviation -- Covariation between Two Variables -- Bivariate Regression Analysis -- Causal Inference -- Treatment Effect and Selection Bias -- Randomized Evaluations -- Ordinary Least Squares and Causal Inference -- Bias from Omitted Variables -- Panel Regressions -- Fixed Effects and Difference-in-Differences Estimation -- Instrumental Variables -- Regressions Table
Bibliography Includes bibliographical references and index
Notes Description based on print version record
Subject Economic development.
Developing countries -- Economic conditions.
Form Electronic book
ISBN 1315510553 (electronic bk.)
9781315510552 (electronic bk.)