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Author Walczowski, Waldemar, author

Title Atlantic water in the Nordic Seas : properties, variability, climatic importance / Waldemar Walczowski
Published Cham : Springer, [2014]
Table of Contents
1.1.The Climate-Forming Role of the Ocean1
1.2.Early Studies of the Ocean Circulation2
1.3.Formulating the Idea of Thermohaline Circulation4
1.4.Modern Investigations of the Thermohaline Circulation6
1.5.Contemporary Views on the Thermohaline Circulation7
1.6.The Arctic in the Global Climate System10
1.7.Climate Changes in the Arctic12
1.8.Causes and Effects of Changes in the Thermohaline Circulation14
1.9.The Objective and Scope of This Work16
2.The Nordic Seas21
2.1.Characteristics of the Nordic Seas21
2.4.Ocean Currents24
2.5.Two Branches of the West Spitsbergen Current28
2.6.Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction32
2.7.Climatological Fields of Temperature and Salinity35
2.8.Transformation of the Atlantic Water36
3.Methodology of Measurements and Data Analysis41
3.1.Participation of the IOPAS in Research Programs and Measurement Campaigns41
3.2.Measuring Instruments43
3.3.The Study Area44
3.4.Characteristics and Methods of Processing the Measurement Data46
3.5.Measurement Errors and Data Processing Errors49
3.6.Problems and Doubts51
4.Properties of the Atlantic Water in 2000-200753
4.1.Mean Properties of the Atlantic Water53
4.2.Changes in the Properties of the Atlantic Water56
4.3.Variability Studied Using the Empirical Orthogonal Functions65
4.4.Division of the Study Area68
4.5.Correlation with the NAO Index73
4.6.Correlation with Temperature in Hornsund75
5.Structure and Variability of the Atlantic Water on the Transects79
5.1.Transect 'H'80
5.2.Transect 'K'82
5.3.Transect 'N'84
5.4.Transect 'EB'92
5.5.Transect 'VI'94
5.6.The 'Core' Transect95
5.7.Meridional Variability97
5.8.Correlations Between the Properties of the Atlantic Water Studied on the Transects100
5.8.1.Correlations in the Eastern WSC Branch103
5.8.2.The Western Part of the WSC104
6.Dynamics of the West Spitsbergen Current111
6.1.Data and Methods111
6.2.Baroclinic Currents115
6.3.Division of the Study Area122
6.4.In Situ Measured Currents124
7.The West Spitsbergen Current Volume and Heat Transport129
7.1.Meridional Variability129
7.2.Temporal Variability131
7.2.1.Transect 'H'131
7.2.2.Transect 'K'131
7.2.3.Transect 'N'132
7.2.4.Transect 'EB'134
7.2.5.Transect 'VI'134
7.3.Baroclinic vs Barotropic Flows136
7.4.Structure of the West Spitsbergen Current138
7.5.Signal Propagation in the West Spitsbergen Current142
7.6.Volume and Heat Budget143
8.Changes in the Ocean Climate151
8.1.The Northward Propagation of Warm Water151
8.2.Changes in the Properties of the Atlantic Water in the Eastern and Western Branches155
8.3.The Importance of Mesoscale Eddies in Heat Transport156
9.Final Conclusions163
9.1.The Possibilities of Diagnosis164
9.2.Prediction Potential166
9.3.1.Structure of Currents168
9.3.2.Spatial Changes169
9.3.3.Temporal Variability170
9.3.4.Correlation Relationships171
9.3.5.The Ocean Climate and the Significance of the AW for the Climate172
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Description 1 online resource (xix, 174 pages) : illustrations (some color)
Series GeoPlanet : earth and planetary sciences
Contents Introduction -- The Nordic Seas -- Methodology of Measurements and Data Analysis -- Properties of the Atlantic Water in 2000-2007 -- Structure and Variability of the Atlantic Water on the Transects -- Dynamics of the West Spitsbergen Current -- The West Spitsbergen Current Volume and Heat Transport -- Changes in the Ocean Climate -- Final Conclusions
Introduction -- The Nordic Seas -- Methodology of measurements and data analysis -- Properties of the Atlantic Water in 2000-2007 -- Structure and variability of the Atlantic Water on the transects -- Dynamics of the West Spitsbergen Current
Summary The book presents a wide description of hydrographic conditions in the studied area of the Norwegian and Greenland Seas. Variability of the Atlantic Water properties have been presented on the basis of time series obtained from oceanographic measurements performed each summer from 2000 to 2007 by the Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences. The warming observed in that period has been described in detail as well as cooling of the Atlantic Water flowing towards the Fram Strait in 2007. Furthermore, concepts regarding multi-branch structure of the West Spitsbergen Current have been presented, types of flows in individual branches as well as variability of the flows. Description of the structure, transports and variability of the sea currents is based mostly on hydrographic measurements and baroclinic calculations. The results confirm a leading role of the ocean in climate shaping and acknowledges the importance of the Thermohaline Circulation for the climate
Bibliography Includes bibliographical references
Notes Print version record
Subject Ocean-atmosphere interaction -- North Atlantic Ocean.
Ocean circulation -- North Atlantic Ocean.
Form Electronic book
ISBN 3319012797 (electronic bk.)
9783319012797 (electronic bk.)