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Title Handbook of oil spill science and technology / edited by Merv Fingas
Published Hoboken, New Jersey : Wiley, 2015
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Contents Machine-generated contents note: pt. I RISK ANALYSIS -- 1. Risk Analysis and Prevention / Dagmar Schmidt Etkin -- 1.1. Introduction -- 1.2. Executive Summary -- 1.3. Oil Spill Risk Analysis -- 1.3.1. Defining "Oil Spill Risk" -- 1.3.2. Factors That Determine the Probability of Spill Occurrence -- 1.3.3. Probability Distributions of Spill Volume -- 1.3.4. Determining the Probable Locations and Timing of Spills -- 1.3.5. Factors That Determine the Consequences/Impacts of a Spill -- 1.3.6. Spill Impacts: The Effects of Spill Location Type -- 1.3.7. Measuring Oil Spill Impacts -- 1.3.8. Interpreting Risk for Policy-Making -- 1.4. Overview of Oil Spill Prevention -- 1.4.1. Basic Strategies for Spill Prevention -- 1.4.2. Implementation of Spill Prevention Measures -- 1.4.3. Effectiveness of Spill Prevention -- 1.4.4. Spill Fines and Penalties as Deterrents -- References -- pt. II OIL PROPERTIES -- 2. Oil Physical Properties: Measurement and Correlation / Bruce P. Hollebone -- 2.1. Introduction -- 2.2. Bulk Properties of Crude Oil and Fuel Products -- 2.2.1. Density and API Gravity -- 2.2.2. Dynamic Viscosity -- 2.2.3. Surface and Interfacial Tensions -- 2.2.4. Flash Point -- 2.2.5. Pour Point -- 2.2.6. Sulphur Content -- 2.2.7. Water Content -- 2.2.8. Evaluation of the Stability of Emulsions Formed from Brine and Oils and Oil Products -- 2.2.9. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Dispersants on an Oil -- 2.2.10. Adhesion -- 2.3. Hydrocarbon Groups -- 2.3.1. Saturates -- 2.3.2. Aromatics -- 2.3.3. Resins -- 2.3.4. Asphaltenes -- 2.4. Quality Assurance and Control -- 2.5. Effects of Evaporative Weathering on Oil Bulk Properties -- 2.5.1. Weathering -- 2.5.2. Preparing Evaporated (Weathered) Samples of Oils -- 2.5.3. Quantifying Equation(s) for Predicting Evaporation -- References -- pt. III OIL COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES -- 3. Introduction to Oil Chemistry and Properties / Merv Fingas -- 3.1. Introduction -- 3.2. The Composition of Oil -- 3.2.1. SARA -- 3.2.2. Sulphur Compounds -- 3.2.3. Oxygen Compounds -- 3.2.4. Nitrogen Compounds -- 3.2.5. Metals -- 3.2.6. Resins -- 3.2.7. Asphaltenes -- 3.3. Properties of Oil -- References -- 4. Vegetable Oil Spills: Oil Properties and Behaviour / Merv Fingas -- 4.1. Introduction -- 4.2. The Oils -- 4.3. Historical Spills -- 4.4. Aquatic Toxicity -- 4.5. Properties of the Oils -- 4.6. Behaviour in the Environment -- 4.7. Oxidation, Biodegradation, and Polymerization -- 4.8. Spill Countermeasures -- 4.9. Biofuels -- 4.10. Conclusions -- References -- pt. IV OIL ANALYSIS -- 5. Chromatographic Fingerprinting Analysis of Crude Oils and Petroleum Products / Mike Landriault -- 5.1. Introduction -- 5.1.1. Crude Oils and Refined Petroleum Products -- 5.1.2. Chemical Components of Petroleum -- 5.2. Introduction to Oil Analysis Techniques -- 5.2.1. GC -- 5.2.2. GC with Mass Spectrometry -- 5.2.3. Ancillary Oil Fingerprinting Techniques -- 5.3. Methodology of Oil Fingerprinting Analysis -- 5.3.1. Oil Sample Preparation and Separation -- 5.3.2. Identification and Quantitation of Target Petroleum Hydrocarbons -- 5.3.3. Oil Type Screening by GC-FID -- 5.3.4. Aliphatic Hydrocarbons in Petroleum -- 5.3.5. Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Petroleum -- 5.4. Weathering Effect on Oil Chemical Composition -- 5.4.1. Evaporation Weathering -- 5.4.2. Biodegradation Weathering -- 5.4.3. Photodegradation Weathering -- 5.4.4. Assessment of Mass Loss during Weathering -- 5.5. Diagnostic Ratios of Target Hydrocarbons -- 5.5.1. Molecular Diagnostic Ratios for Oil Identification -- 5.5.2. Selection of Diagnostic Ratios -- 5.6. Forensic Oil Spill Identification: A Case Study -- 5.6.1. Product Type Screening and Determination of Hydrocarbon Groups -- 5.6.2. Determination of Oil-Characteristic Alkylated PAHs and Biomarkers -- 5.6.3. Comparison of Diagnostic Ratios -- 5.6.4. Weathering Check -- 5.6.5. Results of Match between Spilled Oils and Candidate Sources -- References -- 6. Oil Spill Identification / Gerhard Dahlmann -- 6.1. Introduction -- 6.2. Sampling -- 6.2.1. Thick Oil Layers and Tar Balls -- 6.2.2. Sampling of Thin Oil Films (Sheens or Slicks) -- 6.2.3. Taking Oil Samples on Beaches and from Oiled Animals -- 6.2.4. Sampling on Board Vessels -- 6.3. Sample Handling in the Laboratory -- 6.4. Analysis -- 6.4.1. Characterization by GC-FID: Level 1 -- 6.4.2. Characterization by GC-MS: Level 2 -- 6.5. Conclusions -- References -- pt. V OIL BEHAVIOUR -- 7. Oil and Petroleum Evaporation / Merv Fingas -- 7.1. Introduction -- 7.2. Review of Historical Concepts -- 7.3. Development of New Diffusion-Regulated Models -- 7.3.1. Wind Experiments -- 7.3.2. Variation with Area -- 7.3.3. Variation with Mass -- 7.3.4. Evaporation of Pure Hydrocarbons -- 7.3.5. Saturation Concentration -- 7.3.6. Development of Generic Equations Using Distillation Data -- 7.4. Complexities to the Diffusion-Regulated Model -- 7.4.1. Oil Thickness -- 7.4.2. The Bottle Effect -- 7.4.3. Skinning -- 7.4.4. Jumps from the 0-Wind Values -- 7.5. Use of Evaporation Equations in Spill Models -- 7.6. Volatilization -- 7.7. Measurement of Evaporation -- 7.8. Summary -- References -- 8. Water-in-Oil Emulsions: Formation and Prediction / Ben Fieldhouse -- 8.1. Introduction -- 8.2. Types of Emulsions -- 8.3. Stability Indices -- 8.4. Formation of Emulsions -- 8.4.1. The Role of Asphaltenes -- 8.4.2. The Role of Resins and Other Components -- 8.4.3. Methods to Study Emulsions -- 8.4.4. The Overall Theory of Emulsion Formation -- 8.4.5. The Role of Weathering -- 8.5. Modelling the Formation of Water-in-Oil Emulsions -- 8.5.1. Older Models -- 8.5.2. New Models -- 8.5.3. Development of an Emulsion Kinetics Estimator -- 8.5.4. Model Certainty -- 8.6. Conclusions -- References -- 9. Oil Behaviour in Ice-Infested Waters / Bruce P. Hollebone -- 9.1. Introduction -- 9.2. Spreading on Ice -- 9.3. Spreading on or in Snow -- 9.4. Spreading under Ice -- 9.4.1. Water Stripping Velocity under Ice -- 9.5. Spreading on Water with Ice Present -- 9.6. The Effect of Gas on Oil-under-Ice Spreading -- 9.7. Movement through Ice -- 9.8. Oil in Leads -- 9.9. Absorption to Snow and Ice -- 9.10. Containment on Ice -- 9.11. Heating Effect of Oil on the Surface of Ice -- 9.12. Oil under Multiyear Ice -- 9.13. Oil in Pack Ice -- 9.14. Growth of Ice on Shorelines and Effect on Oil Retention -- 9.15. Effect of Oil on Ice Properties -- 9.16. Concluding Remarks -- References -- pt. VI MODELLING -- 10. Introduction to Spill Modelling / Merv Fingas -- 10.1. Introduction -- 10.2. An Overview of Weathering -- 10.3. Evaporation -- 10.4. Water Uptake and Emulsification -- 10.4.1. Regression Model Calculation -- 10.5. Natural Dispersion -- 10.6. Summary of Natural Dispersion -- 10.7. Other Processes -- 10.7.1. Dissolution -- 10.7.2. Photooxidation -- 10.7.3. Sedimentation, Adhesion to Surfaces, and Oil-Fines Interaction -- 10.7.4. Biodegradation -- 10.7.5. Sinking and Overwashing -- 10.7.6. Formation of Tar Balls -- 10.8. Movement of Oil and Oil Spill Modelling -- 10.8.1. Spreading -- 10.8.2. Movement of Oil Slicks -- 10.9. Spill Modelling -- References -- 11. Oceanographic and Meteorological Effects on Spilled Oil / William J. Lehr -- List of Symbols -- 11.1. Introduction -- 11.2. Chapter Scope -- 11.3. Atmospheric Boundary Layer -- 11.4. Water Currents -- 11.5. Waves -- 11.6. Sea Spray -- 11.7. Langmuir Cells -- 11.8. Oil Transport -- 11.9. Areas of Active Research -- 11.9.1. Ice -- 11.9.2. Lagrangian Coherent Structures -- 11.9.3. Sub-surface Well Blowouts -- References -- pt
VII DETECTION, TRACKING, AND REMOTE-SENSING -- 12. Oil Spill Remote-Sensing / Carl E. Brown -- 12.1. Introduction -- 12.2. Atmospheric Properties -- 12.3. Oil Interaction with Light and Electronic Waves -- 12.4. Visible Indications of Oil -- 12.5. Optical Sensors -- 12.5.1. Visible -- 12.5.2. IR -- 12.5.3. Near IR -- 12.5.4. UV -- 12.6. Laser Fluorosensors -- 12.7. Microwave Sensors -- 12.7.1. Radiometers -- 12.7.2. Radar -- 12.7.3. Microwave Scatterometers -- 12.7.4. Surface-Wave Radars -- 12.7.5. Interferometric Radar -- 12.8. Slick Thickness Determination -- 12.8.1. Visual Thickness Indications -- 12.8.2. Slick Thickness Relationships in Remote Sensors -- 12.8.3. Specific Thickness Sensors -- 12.9. Integrated Airborne Sensor Systems -- 12.10. Satellite Remote Sensing -- 12.10.1. Optical -- 12.10.2. Radar -- 12.11. Oil-Under-Ice Detection -- 12.12. Underwater Detection and Tracking -- 12.13. Small Remote-Controlled Aircraft -- 12.14. Real-Time Displays and Printers -- 12.15. Routine Surveillance -- 12.16. Future Trends -- 12.17. Recommendations -- References -- 13. Detection, Tracking, and Remote-Sensing: Satellites and Image Processing (Spaceborne Oil Spill Detection) / Guido Ferraro -- 13.1. Introduction -- 13.2. Oil Spills Detection by Satellite -- 13.2.1. Optical Remote-Sensing -- 13.2.2. Microwave Remote-Sensing -- 13.3. From Research to Operational Services -- 13.3.1. Historical attempts -- 13.3.2. Operational Oil Spill Detection -- 13.3.3. Oil Seepage Detection Aspects -- 13.4. Ancillary Data -- 13.4.1. Detection Capability -- 13.4.2. Risk of Pollution -- 13.4.3. Ship Detection (AIS, LRIT, VMS, Satellite AIS) -- 13.5. Summary and Conclusions -- References
Note continued: 14. Detection of Oil in, with, and under Ice and Snow / Carl E. Brown -- 14.1. Introduction -- 14.2. Overview of Detection of Oil in or under Ice and Snow -- 14.2.1. Optical Methods -- 14.2.2. Acoustic Methods -- 14.2.3. Radio-Frequency Methods -- 14.2.4. Ground-Penetrating Radar -- 14.2.5. UHF Radiometer -- 14.2.6. Nuclear Techniques -- 14.2.7. Gas Sniffing and Leak Detection -- 14.2.8. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance -- 14.3. Detection of Surface Oil with Ice: Conventional Techniques -- 14.4. Conclusions -- References -- pt. VIII OIL SPILLS ON LAND -- 15. Bioremediation of Oil Spills on Land / Ania C. Ulrich -- 15.1. Introduction -- 15.2. Brief Overview of Bioremediation Techniques for Land Oil Spills -- 15.2.1. In Situ versus Ex Situ -- 15.2.2. Biostimulation versus Bioaugmentation -- 15.3. Key Organisms Involved in Biodegradation of Oil Spills on Land -- 15.3.1. Communities versus Isolates -- 15.4. Environmental Factors Affecting Bioremediation -- 15.4.1. Temperature -- 15.4.2. pH -- 15.4.3. Salinity -- 15.4.4. Nutrients -- 15.4.5. Moisture -- 15.4.6. Redox Environment -- 15.4.7. Soil Type -- 15.5. In Situ Bioremediation Strategies -- 15.5.1. Bioventing -- 15.5.2. Enhanced Bioremediation -- 15.5.3. Monitored Natural Attenuation -- 15.6. Ex Situ Land Treatment Techniques -- 15.6.1. Land-farming and Land Treatment -- 15.6.2. Biopiles -- 15.6.3. Organic Amendments -- 15.7. Bioaugmentation Strategies -- 15.7.1. Key Bacteria Used in Bioaugmentation -- 15.7.2. Role of Other Organisms -- 15.8. Biostimulation Strategies -- 15.8.1. Biosurfactants -- References -- 16. Microbe-Assisted Phytoremediation of Petroleum Impacted Soil: A Scientifically-Proven Green Technology / Bruce M. Greenberg -- 16.1. Introduction -- 16.1.1. Overview of Phytoremediation -- 16.1.2. Developing Microbe-Assisted Phytoremediation as a Remedial Strategy for PHC -- 16.1.3. Benefits and Challenges of Phytoremediation and Microbe-Assisted Phytoremediation -- 16.1.4. Successful Field Tests of Phytoremediation -- 16.2. PGPR-Enhanced Phytoremediation System(s) -- 16.2.1. Development, Proof, and Full-Scale Application of PEPS -- 16.2.2. Keys to the Success of PEPS -- 16.3. Case Studies of Full-Scale Petroleum Phytoremediation -- 16.3.1. Case Study #1: Edson, Alberta -- 16.3.2. Case Study #2: Peace River, Alberta -- 16.3.3. Case Study #3: Hinton, Alberta -- 16.3.4. Case Study #4: Dawson Creek, British Columbia -- 16.3.5. Overall Conclusions from Case Studies -- 16.4. Achieving Regulatory Criteria -- 16.4.1. Optimizing PHC Analytical Protocols for Removal of BOC -- 16.4.2. Plant Toxicity Testing -- 16.5. Conclusions -- References -- pt. IX EFFECTS OF OIL -- 17. Overview of Efforts to Document and Reduce Impacts of Oil Spills on Seabirds / Florina S. Tseng -- 17.1. Introduction -- 17.2. Vulnerability -- 17.3. Effect of Oiling on Individual Birds -- 17.3.1. External Oil Effects -- 17.3.2. Internal Oil Effects -- 17.3.3. Oil Effects on Reproduction -- 17.4. Rehabilitation and Veterinary Care -- 17.4.1. Key Considerations in Care -- 17.4.2. Release Rates -- 17.4.3. Post-Release Survival and Reproduction -- 17.4.4. Rehabilitation Process -- 17.5. Estimating Mortality -- 17.5.1. Oiled Birds at Sea -- 17.5.2. Oiled Birds on Land -- 17.5.3. Cause of Death and Background Deposition -- 17.6. Long-Term Impacts -- 17.7. Restoration -- 17.7.1. Apex Houston Barge Oil Spill, Central California -- 17.7.2. American Trader Oil Spill, Southern California -- References -- 18. Overview of Effects of Oil Spills on Marine Mammals / Terrie M. Williams -- 18.1. Introduction -- 18.1.1. Sea Otters -- 18.1.2. Seals and Sea Lions -- 18.1.3. Sea Cows -- 18.1.4. Polar Bears -- 18.1.5. Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises -- 18.2. Sea Otters -- 18.2.1. External Exposure -- 18.2.2. Internal Exposure -- 18.2.3. Long-Term Effects -- 18.3. Seals and Sea Lions -- 18.3.1. Direct Effects -- 18.3.2. Vulnerability and Risk -- 18.4. Sea Cows -- 18.4.1. Direct Effects -- 18.4.2. Indirect Effects -- 18.5. Polar Bears -- 18.5.1. Direct and Indirect Effects -- 18.5.2. Vulnerability and Risk -- 18.6. Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises -- 18.6.1. Direct Effects -- 18.6.2. Vulnerability and Risk -- References -- 19. Oil Spill Impact and Recovery of Coastal Marsh Vegetation / Qianxin Lin -- 19.1. Introduction -- 19.2. Toxicity and Impact as a Function of Oil Type and Oil Weathering Degree -- 19.3. Sensitivity to Oil Varies by Plant Species -- 19.4. Effects of Oil Exposure Modes on Severity of Oil Impacts -- 19.5. Effects of Oil Spill Cleanup Procedures on Marsh Recovery -- References -- pt. X NATURAL DISPERSION -- 20. A Review of Natural Dispersion Models / Merv Fingas -- 20.1. Introduction -- 20.2. The Mackay Approach -- 20.3. The Audunson Approach -- 20.4. The Delvigne Approach -- 20.5. Residence in the Water Column -- 20.6. Comparison of the Models -- 20.7. Conclusions -- References -- pt. XI COLD REGION SPILLS -- 21. Arctic and Antarctic Spills / Andrew G. Klein -- 21.1. Introduction -- 21.1.1. Occurrences -- 21.1.2. Scale of the Problem -- 21.1.3. Environments -- 21.1.4. Regulatory Framework -- 21.2. Terrestrial Spills -- 21.2.1. Petroleum Transport and Fate -- 21.2.2. Mitigation and Countermeasures -- 21.2.3. Remediation and Lessons Learned -- 21.3. Marine Spills -- 21.3.1. Petroleum Transport and Fate -- 21.3.2. Mitigation and Countermeasures -- 21.3.3. Remediation and Lessons Learned -- 21.4. Policy -- References -- pt. XII CASE STUDIES -- 22. The Prestige Oil Spill / Lucia Vinas -- 22.1. Introduction -- 22.2. The Ocean and Coastal Dynamics in the NW Iberia and their Influence on the Spill -- 22.2.1. Oceanographic Conditions -- 22.2.2. Oil Spill Forecasting -- 22.3. Oil Monitoring and Fate -- 22.3.1. Fuel Oil Composition -- 22.3.2. Fuel at Sea -- 22.3.3. Spatial and Temporal Distribution in Seawater -- 22.3.4. Continental Shelf Contamination -- 22.3.5. Accumulation in Biota -- 22.4. The Assessment of Effects -- 22.4.1. Bioassays under Laboratory Conditions -- 22.4.2. Field Studies -- 22.5. Environmental Restoration -- 22.5.1. Oil Recovery at Sea -- 22.5.2. Coastal Contamination and Cleanup Efforts -- 22.5.3. Natural Attenuation Processes -- 22.6. Conclusion -- References -- 23. The Grounding of the Bahia Paraiso, Arthur Harbor, Antarctica: Distribution and Fate of Oil Spill-Related Hydrocarbons / Andrew G
Klein -- 23.1. Introduction and Background -- 23.2. Environmental Sampling -- 23.2.1. Surface Slicks and Water Column -- 23.2.2. Intertidal Macroalgae -- 23.2.3. Intertidal Beaches -- 23.2.4. Intertidal Limpets -- 23.2.5. Subtidal Sediments -- 23.2.6. Impacts on Other Wildlife -- 23.3. Conclusions -- References -- 24. Tasman Spirit Oil Spill at Karachi Coast, Pakistan / Alia Bano Munshi -- 24.1. Introduction -- 24.2. Immediate Response to the Impact: Actions and Remediation -- 24.2.1. Oil Recovery and Coast Cleaning -- 24.2.2. Oil Spill Monitoring -- 24.2.3. Socioeconomic Impact and Damage to Coastal Marine Life Damage -- 24.2.4. Human Health Impacts -- 24.3. The DDWP Project by Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST) -- 24.4. Hydrodynamics and Meteorological Data -- 24.4.1. Oceanographic Conditions -- 24.4.2. The Assessment of Oil Transport: Numerical Models -- 24.5. Oil Monitoring and Fate -- 24.5.1. Oil Composition -- 24.5.2. Spatial and Temporal Distribution in Seawater -- 24.5.3. Biota Affected by Oil Pollution -- 24.5.4. Oil Content of Sediment -- 24.6. Effects of Oil Impact at the Community Level -- 24.6.1. The Effects on the Benthic System -- 24.6.2. The Effects on the Pelagic System -- 24.7. Bioremediation/Natural Attenuation Processes -- 24.8. Conclusions -- References -- pt. XIII APPENDICES -- Appendix A The Oil Properties Data Appendix / Bruce P. Hollebone -- Appendix B Conversions / Merv Fingas -- Appendix C Ice Nomenclature / Merv Fingas
Bibliography Includes bibliographical references and index
Notes Print version record and CIP data provided by publisher
Subject Oil spills -- Cleanup -- Handbooks, manuals, etc.
Oil spills -- Management -- Handbooks, manuals, etc.
Oil spills -- Prevention -- Handbooks, manuals, etc.
Genre/Form Handbooks and manuals.
Handbooks and manuals.
Form Electronic book
Author Fingas, Mervin F., editor
LC no. 2014023355
ISBN 0470455519
1118989961 (pdf)
111898997X (epub)
9780470455517
9781118989968 (pdf)
9781118989975 (epub)