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Title Ferroelectric crystals for photonic applications : including nanoscale fabrication and characterization techniques / Pietro Ferraro, Simonetta Grilli, Paolo De Natale, editors
Edition Second edition
Published Heidelberg : Springer, 2014
Table of Contents
 Part I Fabrication 
1.Micro-Structuring and Ferroelectric Domain Engineering of Single Crystal Lithium Niobate3
1.1.Introduction / S. Mailis, R.W. Eason, C.L. Sones3
1.2.Other Methods / S. Mailis, R.W. Eason, C.L. Sones4
1.3.Differential Chemical Etching / S. Mailis, R.W. Eason, C.L. Sones5
1.3.1.z-Faces / S. Mailis, R.W. Eason, C.L. Sones5
1.3.2.y-Faces / S. Mailis, R.W. Eason, C.L. Sones9
1.3.3.Microstructures / S. Mailis, R.W. Eason, C.L. Sones11
1.4.Summary and Future Work / S. Mailis, R.W. Eason, C.L. Sones17
 References / S. Mailis, R.W. Eason, C.L. Sones18
2.Fabrication and Characterization of Self-assembled Ferroelectric Linear and Nonlinear Photonic Crystals: GaN and LiNbO3 / S. Mailis, R.W. Eason, C.L. Sones21
2.1.Introduction / L.H. Peng, C.M. Lai, H.M. Wu21
2.2.Micro-Domain Engineering with Conventional Poling Electrode Design / L.H. Peng, C.M. Lai, H.M. Wu24
2.2.1.Internal Field Effect in the Poling of Congruent-Grown LiNbO3 or LiTaO3 / L.H. Peng, C.M. Lai, H.M. Wu24
2.2.2.Origin of the Fringe Field / L.H. Peng, C.M. Lai, H.M. Wu24
2.2.3.Poling Issues with Doped or Stoichiometric LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 / L.H. Peng, C.M. Lai, H.M. Wu25
2.3.From Micron to Submicron Domain Engineering with Improved Electrode Design / L.H. Peng, C.M. Lai, H.M. Wu27
2.3.1.Charged Potential Barrier Method / L.H. Peng, C.M. Lai, H.M. Wu28
2.3.2.Stack of High-k Dielectric Poling Electrode Method / L.H. Peng, C.M. Lai, H.M. Wu37
2.3.3.Submicron Domain Engineering with Self-assembly Type of Poling Electrodes / L.H. Peng, C.M. Lai, H.M. Wu39
2.3.4.Submicron Domain Engineering in Ferroelectric Semiconductors / H.M. Wu, L.H. Peng, C.M. Lai44
2.4.Conclusion / L.H. Peng, C.M. Lai, H.M. Wu47
 References / L.H. Peng, C.M. Lai, H.M. Wu49
3.Sub-Micron Structuring of LiNbO3 Crystals with Multi-Period and Complex Geometries / L.H. Peng, C.M. Lai, H.M. Wu53
3.1.Introduction / P. Ferraro, S. Grilli53
3.2.Overview of the Etching Techniques Applied to Lithium Niobate / P. Ferraro, S. Grilli54
3.3.Electric Field Poling and Overpoling / P. Ferraro, S. Grilli58
3.4.Holographic Lithography / P. Ferraro, S. Grilli61
3.5.Periodic Sub-micron Structuring / P. Ferraro, S. Grilli63
3.5.1.Overpoling Applied to One-Dimensional Michelson Resist Gratings / P. Ferraro, S. Grilli63
3.5.2.Overpoling Applied to Two-Dimensional Michelson Resist Gratings / P. Ferraro, S. Grilli65
3.5.3.Overpoling Applied to Two-Beams Resist Gratings at Sub-micron Scale / P. Ferraro, S. Grilli66
3.5.4.Complex Surface Structures by Moiré HL / P. Ferraro, S. Grilli67
3.6.Double-Face Sub-micron Surface Structures / P. Ferraro, S. Grilli72
3.7.Possible Applications for Novel Photonic Crystal Devices / P. Ferraro, S. Grilli73
 References / P. Ferraro, S. Grilli76
4.Nonlinear Optical Waveguides in Stoichiometric Lithium Tantalate / P. Ferraro, S. Grilli79
4.1.Material Properties / R. Ramponi, M. Marangoni81
4.1.1.Physical Properties / R. Ramponi, M. Marangoni81
4.1.2.Optical Properties / R. Ramponi, M. Marangoni83
4.2.Waveguide Fabrication Through Reverse-Proton-Exchange / R. Ramponi, M. Marangoni85
4.2.1.Fabrication and Characterization Procedures / R. Ramponi, M. Marangoni87
4.2.2.Modelling / R. Ramponi, M. Marangoni88
4.3.Second-Harmonic Generation in RPE-PPSLT Waveguides / R. Ramponi, M. Marangoni92
4.3.1.Highly Confining Waveguides / R. Ramponi, M. Marangoni93
4.3.2.Weakly-Confining Waveguides / R. Ramponi, M. Marangoni94
 References / R. Ramponi, M. Marangoni97
5.3-D Integrated Optical Microcircuits in Lithium Niobate Written by Spatial Solitons / R. Ramponi, M. Marangoni99
5.1.Review of Waveguide Fabrication Techniques / V. Coda, M. Alonzo, E. Fazio, F. Pettazzi, V.I. Vlad, A. Petris, M. Chauvet99
5.2.Theory of Photorefractive[-]Photovoltaic Spatial Solitons in Biased LiNbO3 / E. Fazio, M. Chauvet, V.I. Vlad, M. Alonzo, F. Pettazzi, V. Coda, A. Petris101
5.2.1.Photorefractive Model / E. Fazio, M. Chauvet, V.I. Vlad, M. Alonzo, F. Pettazzi, V. Coda, A. Petris101
5.2.2.Time Dependent Electric Field Distribution / E. Fazio, M. Chauvet, V.I. Vlad, M. Alonzo, F. Pettazzi, V. Coda, A. Petris101
5.2.3.PR Space Charge Field / E. Fazio, M. Chauvet, V.I. Vlad, M. Alonzo, F. Pettazzi, V. Coda, A. Petris103
5.2.4.Soliton Solutions / E. Fazio, M. Chauvet, V.I. Vlad, M. Alonzo, F. Pettazzi, V. Coda, A. Petris103
5.2.5.Dark Solitons / E. Fazio, M. Chauvet, V.I. Vlad, M. Alonzo, F. Pettazzi, V. Coda, A. Petris105
5.2.6.Bright Solitons / E. Fazio, M. Chauvet, V.I. Vlad, M. Alonzo, F. Pettazzi, V. Coda, A. Petris108
5.3.Photorefractive Bright Soliton Observation / E. Fazio, M. Chauvet, V.I. Vlad, M. Alonzo, F. Pettazzi, V. Coda, A. Petris111
5.4.Waveguiding in Soliton Channels/Strips / M. Alonzo, E. Fazio, M. Chauvet, V. Coda, A. Petris, F. Pettazzi, V.I. Vlad112
5.4.1.Experimental Observation / E. Fazio, M. Chauvet, V.I. Vlad, M. Alonzo, F. Pettazzi, V. Coda, A. Petris112
5.4.2.Fixing Soliton Waveguides and Circuits in Lithium Niobate Crystals / E. Fazio, M. Chauvet, V.I. Vlad, M. Alonzo, F. Pettazzi, V. Coda, A. Petris114
5.4.3.Waveguide Characteristics / E. Fazio, M. Chauvet, V.I. Vlad, M. Alonzo, F. Pettazzi, V. Coda, A. Petris115
5.5.Optical Microcircuits with Soliton Waveguides / E. Fazio, M. Chauvet, V.I. Vlad, A. Petris, F. Pettazzi, V. Coda, M. Alonzo116
5.5.1.Passive / E. Fazio, M. Chauvet, V.I. Vlad, M. Alonzo, F. Pettazzi, V. Coda, A. Petris116
5.6.Optical Microcircuits with Solitons Waveguides / E. Fazio, M. Chauvet, V.I. Vlad, M. Alonzo, F. Pettazzi, V. Coda, A. Petris117
5.6.1.Passive / E. Fazio, M. Chauvet, V.I. Vlad, M. Alonzo, F. Pettazzi, V. Coda, A. Petris117
5.6.2.Active / E. Fazio, M. Chauvet, V.I. Vlad, M. Alonzo, F. Pettazzi, V. Coda, A. Petris121
5.7.Three-Dimensional Optical Micro-Circuits with SWGs / E. Fazio, M. Chauvet, V.I. Vlad, M. Alonzo, F. Pettazzi, V. Coda, A. Petris127
 References / E. Fazio, M. Chauvet, V.I. Vlad, M. Alonzo, F. Pettazzi, V. Coda, A. Petris130
 Part II Characterization / E. Fazio, M. Chauvet, V.I. Vlad, M. Alonzo, F. Pettazzi, V. Coda, A. Petris 
6.Light Aided Domain Patterning and Rare Earth Emission Based Imaging of Ferroelectric Domains / E. Fazio, M. Chauvet, V.I. Vlad, M. Alonzo, F. Pettazzi, V. Coda, A. Petris135
6.1.Introduction and Background / C. Sandmann, V. Dierolf135
6.1.1.Overview / C. Sandmann, V. Dierolf135
6.1.2.Rare Earth Ions in LiNbO3 / C. Sandmann, V. Dierolf136
6.1.3.Combined Excitation Emission Spectroscopy / C. Sandmann, V. Dierolf138
6.1.4.Confocal Microscopy and Spectroscopy / C. Sandmann, V. Dierolf138
6.2.Application of RE Spectroscopy to the Imaging of Integrated Optical Devices in Lithium Niobate / C. Sandmann, V. Dierolf141
6.2.1.Rare Earth Ions as Probes / C. Sandmann, V. Dierolf142
6.2.2.Imaging of Waveguides / C. Sandmann, V. Dierolf143
6.2.3.Imaging of Ferroelectric Domains and Domain Wall Regions / C. Sandmann, V. Dierolf145
6.2.4.Imaging of Periodically Poled Waveguide Structures / C. Sandmann, V. Dierolf148
6.3.Light Induced Domain Inversion / C. Sandmann, V. Dierolf151
6.3.1.Methods / C. Sandmann, V. Dierolf152
6.3.2.Build-Up of Charge Under Focussed Laser Irradiation / C. Sandmann, V. Dierolf152
6.3.3.Influence of Light on Domain Inversion and Growth / C. Sandmann, V. Dierolf154
6.3.4.Direct Writing of Domain Patterns / C. Sandmann, V. Dierolf156
6.4.Summary and Conclusions / C. Sandmann, V. Dierolf160
 References / C. Sandmann, V. Dierolf161
7.Visual and Quantitative Characterization of Ferroelectric Crystals and Related Domain Engineering Processes by Interferometric Techniques / C. Sandmann, V. Dierolf163
7.1.Introduction / P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, M. Paturzo, S. Grilli163
7.2.Measuring the Refractive Indices and Thickness of Lithium Niobate Wafers / P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, M. Paturzo, S. Grilli164
7.3.Visualization and In-situ Monitoring of Domains Formation / P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, M. Paturzo, S. Grilli170
7.3.1.Digital Holography and Experimental Configuration for In-situ Investigation of Poling / M. Paturzo, S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola172
7.3.2.Investigation of the Electro-Optic Effect and Internal Fields / P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, M. Paturzo, S. Grilli190
7.3.3.Evaluation of Optical Birefringence at Ferroelectric Domain Wall in LiNbO3 / P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, M. Paturzo, S. Grilli197
 References / P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, M. Paturzo, S. Grilli201
8.New Insights into Ferroelectric Domain Imaging with Piezoresponse Force Microscopy / P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, M. Paturzo, S. Grilli205
8.1.Introduction / Tobias Jungk, Elisabeth Soergel, Ákos Hoffmann205
8.1.1.Ferroelectrics / Tobias Jungk, Elisabeth Soergel, Ákos Hoffmann206
8.1.2.Lithium Niobate (LiNbO3) / Tobias Jungk, Elisabeth Soergel, Ákos Hoffmann206
8.2.Principles of Scanning Force Microscopy (SFM) / Tobias Jungk, Ákos Hoffmann, Elisabeth Soergel207
8.2.1.Tip-Cantilever-Surface Interactions / Tobias Jungk, Ákos Hoffmann, Elisabeth Soergel207
8.2.2.Cantilever Movements / Tobias Jungk, Ákos Hoffmann, Elisabeth Soergel208
8.2.3.Cross-Talk / Tobias Jungk, Ákos Hoffmann, Elisabeth Soergel209
8.2.4.Calibration / Tobias Jungk, Ákos Hoffmann, Elisabeth Soergel210
8.3.Principles of Piezoresponse Force Microscopy (PFM) / Tobias Jungk, Ákos Hoffmann, Elisabeth Soergel210
8.3.1.PFM Setup & Standard Settings / Tobias Jungk, Ákos Hoffmann, Elisabeth Soergel211
8.3.2.System-Inherent Background in PFM Measurements / Tobias Jungk, Ákos Hoffmann, Elisabeth Soergel212
8.3.3.Vectorial Description / Tobias Jungk, Ákos Hoffmann, Elisabeth Soergel213
8.4.Consequences of the System-Inherent Background / Tobias Jungk, Ákos Hoffmann, Elisabeth Soergel214
8.4.1.Background-Induced Misinterpretations / Tobias Jungk, Ákos Hoffmann, Elisabeth Soergel215
8.4.2.Background-Free PFM Imaging / Tobias Jungk, Ákos Hoffmann, Elisabeth Soergel217
8.5.Quantitative Piezoresponse Force Microscopy / Tobias Jungk, Ákos Hoffmann, Elisabeth Soergel217
8.5.1.Amplitude of the PFM Signal / Tobias Jungk, Ákos Hoffmann, Elisabeth Soergel218
8.5.2.Domain Wall Width / Tobias Jungk, Ákos Hoffmann, Elisabeth Soergel219
8.6.Ferroelectric Domain Imaging by Lateral Force Microscopy / Tobias Jungk, Ákos Hoffmann, Elisabeth Soergel220
8.6.1.Lateral PFM-Signal on Domain Faces / Tobias Jungk, Ákos Hoffmann, Elisabeth Soergel221
8.6.2.Lateral PFM-Signal at Domain Boundaries / Tobias Jungk, Ákos Hoffmann, Elisabeth Soergel222
8.7.Conclusions / Tobias Jungk, Ákos Hoffmann, Elisabeth Soergel224
 References / Tobias Jungk, Ákos Hoffmann, Elisabeth Soergel224
9.Structural Characterization of Periodically Poled Lithium Niobate Crystals by High Resolution X-Ray Diffraction / Tobias Jungk, Ákos Hoffmann, Elisabeth Soergel227
9.1.Introduction / M. Bazzan, N. Argiolas, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi227
9.2.The Principle of the XRD Technique / M. Bazzan, N. Argiolas, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi230
9.2.1.The Theory of High Resolution X-Ray Diffraction / M. Bazzan, N. Argiolas, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi231
9.2.2.The HRXRD Applied to PPLN Crystals / M. Bazzan, N. Argiolas, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi237
9.3.Experimental Set-Up for Structural Characterization by HRXRD / M. Bazzan, N. Argiolas, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi240
9.4.Applications / C. Sada, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, P. Mazzoldi243
9.4.1.Investigation of Sub-micrometric PPLN Crystals / M. Bazzan, N. Argiolas, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi243
9.4.2.Investigation of Micrometric PPLN Crystals with Bent Domain Walls / P. Mazzoldi, C. Sada, M. Bazzan, N. Argiolas247
9.5.Conclusions / N. Argiolas, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, M. Bazzan250
 References / M. Bazzan, N. Argiolas, P. Mazzoldi, C. Sada252
 Part III Applications / C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan 
10.Nonlinear Interactions in Periodic and Quasi-periodic Nonlinear Photonic Crystals / N. Argiolas, P. Mazzoldi, M. Bazzan, C. Sada255
10.1.Introduction / A. Arie, A. Bahabad, N. Habshoosh255
10.2.Wave Equations in NLPC / A. Arie, N. Habshoosh, A. Bahabad257
10.3.Analysis of a Periodic Nonlinear Photonic Crystal / A. Bahabad, N. Habshoosh, A. Arie260
10.3.1.The Real Lattice / A. Arie, A. Bahabad, N. Habshoosh260
10.3.2.The Reciprocal Lattice / A. Bahabad, N. Habshoosh, A. Arie261
10.3.3.Conversion Efficiency for Specific Types of 2D Periodic Structures / A. Arie, N. Habshoosh, A. Bahabad262
10.3.4.Radial Symmetric Nonlinear Photonic Crystals / A. Bahabad, A. Arie, N. Habshoosh267
10.4.Analysis of a Quasi-periodic Nonlinear Photonic Crystal / A. Arie, A. Bahabad, N. Habshoosh268
10.4.1.Statement of the Problem / N. Habshoosh, A. Arie, A. Bahabad268
10.4.2.Solution by Quasiperiodic Lattices / A. Bahabad, A. Arie, N. Habshoosh269
10.4.3.Establishing an Orthogonality Condition / A. Arie, A. Bahabad, N. Habshoosh270
10.4.4.Tiling the Quasi-periodic Lattice by the Dual Grid Construction / A. Arie, A. Bahabad, N. Habshoosh271
10.4.5.The Fourier Transform of the Quasi-periodic Lattice / A. Arie, N. Habshoosh, A. Bahabad272
10.4.6.From Lattice to a Nonlinear Photonic Crystal / A. Arie, N. Habshoosh, A. Bahabad273
10.4.7.A One-Dimensional Example-The Three Wave Doubler / A. Arie, N. Habshoosh, A. Bahabad274
10.4.8.Quasi-periodic Nonlinear Optical Devices / A. Arie, N. Habshoosh, A. Bahabad277
10.5.Discussion and Summary / A. Arie, N. Habshoosh, A. Bahabad281
 References / A. Arie, N. Habshoosh, A. Bahabad282
11.Domain-Engineered Ferroelectric Crystals for Nonlinear and Quantum Optics / A. Arie, N. Habshoosh, A. Bahabad285
11.1.Introduction / Marco Bellini, Pablo Cancio, Gianluca Gagliardi, Paolo De Natale, Pasquale Maddaloni, Davide Mazzotti, Giovanni Giusfredi285
11.1.1.Classification of Nonlinear Processes / Marco Bellini, Pablo Cancio, Gianluca Gagliardi, Paolo De Natale, Pasquale Maddaloni, Davide Mazzotti, Giovanni Giusfredi286
11.1.2.Phase Matching / Marco Bellini, Pablo Cancio, Gianluca Gagliardi, Paolo De Natale, Pasquale Maddaloni, Davide Mazzotti, Giovanni Giusfredi286
11.2.Nonlinear Optics for Spectroscopic Applications / Marco Bellini, Pablo Cancio, Gianluca Gagliardi, Paolo De Natale, Pasquale Maddaloni, Davide Mazzotti, Giovanni Giusfredi287
11.2.1.Coherent Sources for Mid-IR Spectroscopy and Metrology / Marco Bellini, Pablo Cancio, Gianluca Gagliardi, Paolo De Natale, Pasquale Maddaloni, Davide Mazzotti, Giovanni Giusfredi288
11.2.2.OFCS Extension to the Mid-IR / Marco Bellini, Pablo Cancio, Gianluca Gagliardi, Paolo De Natale, Pasquale Maddaloni, Davide Mazzotti, Giovanni Giusfredi289
11.2.3.Future Perspectives / Pablo Cancio, Gianluca Gagliardi, Giovanni Giusfredi, Marco Bellini, Davide Mazzotti, Paolo De Natale, Pasquale Maddaloni297
11.3.Structured Nonlinear Crystals for Quantum Optics / Marco Bellini, Pablo Cancio, Gianluca Gagliardi, Paolo De Natale, Pasquale Maddaloni, Davide Mazzotti, Giovanni Giusfredi298
11.3.1.Quantum Light Sources / Marco Bellini, Pablo Cancio, Gianluca Gagliardi, Paolo De Natale, Pasquale Maddaloni, Davide Mazzotti, Giovanni Giusfredi298
11.3.2.Single-Photon Detectors / Marco Bellini, Pablo Cancio, Gianluca Gagliardi, Paolo De Natale, Pasquale Maddaloni, Davide Mazzotti, Giovanni Giusfredi303
 References / Marco Bellini, Pablo Cancio, Gianluca Gagliardi, Paolo De Natale, Pasquale Maddaloni, Davide Mazzotti, Giovanni Giusfredi306
12.Photonic Bandgap Properties of Lithium Niobate / Marco Bellini, Pablo Cancio, Gianluca Gagliardi, Paolo De Natale, Pasquale Maddaloni, Davide Mazzotti, Giovanni Giusfredi313
12.1.Introduction / N. Courjal, F.I. Baida, M.P. Bernal, G. Ulliac, C. Guyot, H. Lu, B. Sadani, J. Dandah313
12.2.Electro-Optic LiNbO3 Photonic Crystal / N. Courjal, F.I. Baida, M.P. Bernal, G. Ulliac, C. Guyot, H. Lu, B. Sadani, J. Dandah314
12.2.1.Electro-Optic Effect in Standard Waveguides / G. Ulliac, N. Courjal, F.I. Baida, B. Sadani, J. Dandah, C. Guyot, H. Lu, M.P. Bernal314
12.2.2.A LiNbO3 PhC Based Electro-Optic Modulator / N. Courjal, F.I. Baida, M.P. Bernal, G. Ulliac, C. Guyot, H. Lu, B. Sadani, J. Dandah315
12.3.Fabrication Process / N. Courjal, F.I. Baida, M.P. Bernal, J. Dandah, C. Guyot, H. Lu, B. Sadani, G. Ulliac319
12.3.1.Nanostructuration of LiNbO3 / N. Courjal, F.I. Baida, M.P. Bernal, G. Ulliac, C. Guyot, H. Lu, B. Sadani, J. Dandah320
12.3.2.LiNbO3 Optical Waveguides / N. Courjal, F.I. Baida, M.P. Bernal, G. Ulliac, C. Guyot, H. Lu, B. Sadani, J. Dandah321
12.3.3.Fabrication of Ridges by Optical Grade Dicing / N. Courjal, F.I. Baida, M.P. Bernal, G. Ulliac, C. Guyot, H. Lu, B. Sadani, J. Dandah323
12.4.Examples of Tunable LiNbO3 PhCs on Ridges / N. Courjal, F.I. Baida, M.P. Bernal, G. Ulliac, C. Guyot, H. Lu, B. Sadani, J. Dandah325
12.4.1.PhC on a Ti-Indiffused APE Ridge Waveguide / N. Courjal, F.I. Baida, M.P. Bernal, G. Ulliac, C. Guyot, H. Lu, B. Sadani, J. Dandah325
12.4.2.Free Standing LiNbO3 PhC Cavity / G. Ulliac, N. Courjal, F.I. Baida, B. Sadani, J. Dandah, C. Guyot, H. Lu, M.P. Bernal328
12.4.3.Tunability of the PhCs in Optimized Ridge Waveguides / N. Courjal, F.I. Baida, M.P. Bernal, G. Ulliac, C. Guyot, H. Lu, B. Sadani, J. Dandah329
12.5.Perspectives: 3D PhCS / N. Courjal, F.I. Baida, M.P. Bernal, G. Ulliac, C. Guyot, H. Lu, B. Sadani, J. Dandah331
12.6.Conclusion / N. Courjal, F.I. Baida, M.P. Bernal, G. Ulliac, C. Guyot, H. Lu, B. Sadani, J. Dandah333
 References / N. Courjal, F.I. Baida, M.P. Bernal, G. Ulliac, C. Guyot, H. Lu, B. Sadani, J. Dandah334
13.Lithium Niobate Whispering Gallery Resonators: Applications and Fundamental Studies / N. Courjal, F.I. Baida, M.P. Bernal, G. Ulliac, C. Guyot, H. Lu, B. Sadani, J. Dandah337
13.1.Introduction / A.B. Matsko, L. Maleki337
13.2.Modulators / A.B. Matsko, L. Maleki339
13.2.1.Principle of Operation / A.B. Matsko, L. Maleki340
13.2.2.Performance / A.B. Matsko, L. Maleki341
13.3.Tunable Filters / A.B. Matsko, L. Maleki341
13.3.1.First-Order Filter / A.B. Matsko, L. Maleki341
13.3.2.Third-Order Filter / A.B. Matsko, L. Maleki342
13.3.3.Fifth-Order Filter / A.B. Matsko, L. Maleki345
13.3.4.Insertion Loss / A.B. Matsko, L. Maleki345
13.4.WGRs Made of Periodically Poled Lithium Niobate / A.B. Matsko, L. Maleki347
13.4.1.Optical Frequency Doubling / A.B. Matsko, L. Maleki347
13.4.2.Calligraphic Poling / L. Maleki, A.B. Matsko350
13.4.3.Reconfigurable Filters / A.B. Matsko, L. Maleki351
13.5.Photorefractive Damage / A.B. Matsko, L. Maleki352
13.5.1.Congruent LiNbO3 / A.B. Matsko, L. Maleki354
13.5.2.Magnesium Doped Congruent LiNbO3 / A.B. Matsko, L. Maleki356
13.5.3.Crossings and Anticrossings of the Modes / A.B. Matsko, L. Maleki359
13.5.4.Holographic Engineering of the WGM Spectra / A.B. Matsko, L. Maleki359
13.6.Infrared Transparency and Photorefractivity of Lithium Niobate Crystals: Theory / A.B. Matsko, L. Maleki360
13.6.1.Rate Equations / A.B. Matsko, L. Maleki362
13.6.2.Solution of the Rate Equations / L. Maleki, A.B. Matsko365
13.6.3.Absorption of the Light and Initial Concentration of the Filled Traps / A.B. Matsko, L. Maleki368
 Appendix A Basic Properties of WGMs / A.B. Matsko, L. Maleki371
 Appendix B Lithium Niobate Impurities: A Short Review of Existing Results / A.B. Matsko, L. Maleki373
B.1.Small Polarons / A.B. Matsko, L. Maleki373
B.2.Bipolarons / A.B. Matsko, L. Maleki374
B.3.Iron / A.B. Matsko, L. Maleki375
 Appendix C Photorefractivity in Red: A Short Review of the Existing. Results / A.B. Matsko, L. Maleki376
C.1.Light Induced Change of Refractive Index / A.B. Matsko, L. Maleki376
C.2.Light Induced Change of Absorption / A.B. Matsko, L. Maleki377
 Appendix D Numerical Values of the Basic Rates Characterizing the Impurities / A.B. Matsko, L. Maleki378
 References / A.B. Matsko, L. Maleki381
14.Applications of Domain Engineering in Ferroelectrics for Photonic Applications / A.B. Matsko, L. Maleki385
14.1.Introduction / D.A. Scrymgeour385
14.2.Ferroelectrics and Domain Engineering / D.A. Scrymgeour385
14.3.Applications of Domain Engineered Structures / D.A. Scrymgeour388
14.3.1.Frequency Conversion / D.A. Scrymgeour388
14.3.2.Electro-Optic Devices / D.A. Scrymgeour390
14.4.Challenges of Domain Engineered Ferroelectric Devices / D.A. Scrymgeour397
14.5.Conclusions / D.A. Scrymgeour397
 References / D.A. Scrymgeour398
15.Electro-Optics Effect in Periodically Domain-Inverted Ferroelectrics Crystals: Principles and Applications / D.A. Scrymgeour401
15.1.Introduction / X. Chen, J. Shi401
15.2.Basic Principle / X. Chen, J. Shi402
15.2.1.Electro-Optic Effect in Crystals / X. Chen, J. Shi402
15.2.2.Electro-Optical Effect for Crystals of 3m Symmetry Group / X. Chen, J. Shi405
15.2.3.Electro-Optical Effect in Periodically Domain-Inverted Crystals with 3m Symmetry / X. Chen, J. Shi408
15.3.Applications / X. Chen, J. Shi413
15.3.1.Devices Based on Bragg Diffraction Grating Structure / X. Chen, J. Shi414
15.3.2.Devices Based on Solc-Layered Structure / X. Chen, J. Shi417
15.3.3.Other Application Devices / X. Chen, J. Shi419
 References / X. Chen, J. Shi420
16.The LiNbO3 Slab Waveguide: A Platform for Terahertz Signal Generation, Detection, and Control / X. Chen, J. Shi423
16.1.Introduction to THz Spectroscopy and Polaritonics / Keith A. Nelson, Christopher A. Werley423
16.2.LiNbO3 Slabs: Dielectric Planar Waveguides / Keith A. Nelson, Christopher A. Werley427
16.3.Developments in Polaritonics Methodology / Christopher A. Werley, Keith A. Nelson430
16.3.1.Generation of THz Waves / Keith A. Nelson, Christopher A. Werley431
16.3.2.Techniques for Imaging THz Waves in LiNbO3 Slabs / Keith A. Nelson, Christopher A. Werley433
16.3.3.Structuring the Sample and Femtosecond Laser Machining / Keith A. Nelson, Christopher A. Werley437
16.4.Direct Visualization of THz Waves in Photonic Structures / Keith A. Nelson, Christopher A. Werley438
16.4.1.Reflection and Interference / Keith A. Nelson, Christopher A. Werley438
16.4.2.Diffraction off a Grating / Keith A. Nelson, Christopher A. Werley439
16.4.3.Waveguiding and Interferometry / Keith A. Nelson, Christopher A. Werley440
16.4.4.Filtering and Dispersion Control in Photonic Crystals / Christopher A. Werley, Keith A. Nelson441
16.5.THz Field Enhancement and Subwavelength Localization in Metal Antennas / Keith A. Nelson, Christopher A. Werley443
16.6.Conclusions / Keith A. Nelson, Christopher A. Werley449
 References / Keith A. Nelson, Christopher A. Werley449
17.Periodically-Poled Ferroelectric Crystals Based OPO-A Powerful Source for Precision Spectroscopy / Keith A. Nelson, Christopher A. Werley453
17.1.Introduction / M. De Rosa, E. De Tommasi, P. Maddaloni, P. De Natale, I. Ricciardi, A. Rocco, J.J. Zondy, S. Mosca453
17.2.Principles of Operation / M. De Rosa, E. De Tommasi, P. Maddaloni, P. De Natale, I. Ricciardi, A. Rocco, J.J. Zondy, S. Mosca454
17.2.1.Cavity Configurations / M. De Rosa, E. De Tommasi, P. Maddaloni, P. De Natale, I. Ricciardi, A. Rocco, J.J. Zondy, S. Mosca455
17.2.2.Frequency Tuning / M. De Rosa, E. De Tommasi, P. Maddaloni, P. De Natale, I. Ricciardi, A. Rocco, J.J. Zondy, S. Mosca457
17.2.3.Spectral Features / P. De Natale, M. De Rosa, E. De Tommasi, J.J. Zondy, S. Mosca, I. Ricciardi, A. Rocco, P. Maddaloni458
17.3.Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy with OPOs / M. De Rosa, E. De Tommasi, P. Maddaloni, P. De Natale, I. Ricciardi, A. Rocco, J.J. Zondy, S. Mosca460
17.4.Precise, High-Resolution Spectroscopy with OPO / M. De Rosa, E. De Tommasi, P. Maddaloni, P. De Natale, I. Ricciardi, A. Rocco, J.J. Zondy, S. Mosca461
17.4.1.The Optical Parametric Oscillator / M. De Rosa, E. De Tommasi, P. Maddaloni, P. De Natale, I. Ricciardi, A. Rocco, J.J. Zondy, S. Mosca461
17.4.2.Signal Frequency Stabilization / M. De Rosa, E. De Tommasi, P. Maddaloni, P. De Natale, I. Ricciardi, A. Rocco, J.J. Zondy, S. Mosca463
17.4.3.Optical Frequency Comb Referenced OPO / M. De Rosa, E. De Tommasi, P. Maddaloni, P. De Natale, I. Ricciardi, A. Rocco, J.J. Zondy, S. Mosca465
17.4.4.CH3I Spectroscopy / M. De Rosa, E. De Tommasi, P. Maddaloni, P. De Natale, I. Ricciardi, A. Rocco, J.J. Zondy, S. Mosca467
17.5.Current Developments / M. De Rosa, E. De Tommasi, P. Maddaloni, P. De Natale, I. Ricciardi, A. Rocco, J.J. Zondy, S. Mosca469
 References / P. De Natale, M. De Rosa, E. De Tommasi, J.J. Zondy, S. Mosca, I. Ricciardi, A. Rocco, P. Maddaloni470
18.Electro-Optical Devices Obtained by LiNbO3 Crystals / M. De Rosa, E. De Tommasi, P. Maddaloni, P. De Natale, I. Ricciardi, A. Rocco, J.J. Zondy, S. Mosca475
18.1.Introduction / M. Paturzo, P. Ferraro, S. Grilli, V. Pagliarulo475
18.2.Tunable Two-Dimensional Hexagonal Phase Array in Domain-Engineered LN / M. Paturzo, P. Ferraro, S. Grilli, V. Pagliarulo476
18.2.1.Flexible Phase Array Application for Coherent Diffraction Lithography / M. Paturzo, P. Ferraro, S. Grilli, V. Pagliarulo481
18.3.Point-Diffraction Interferometer / M. Paturzo, P. Ferraro, S. Grilli, V. Pagliarulo482
18.4.Conclusions / M. Paturzo, P. Ferraro, S. Grilli, V. Pagliarulo488
 References / M. Paturzo, P. Ferraro, S. Grilli, V. Pagliarulo489
 Index / M. Paturzo, P. Ferraro, S. Grilli, V. Pagliarulo491
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Description 1 online resource (xxii, 493 pages) : illustrations
Series Springer series in materials science ; volume 91
Springer series in materials science ; 91
Contents Part I. Fabrication -- Micro-Structuring and Ferroelectric Domain Engineering of Single Crystal Lithium Niobate / S. Mailis, C. L. Sones and R. W. Eason -- Fabrication and Characterization of Self-assembled Ferroelectric Linear and Nonlinear Photonic Crystals: GaN and LiNbO 3 / L.-H. Peng, H.-M. Wu and C.-M. Lai -- Sub-Micron Structuring of LiNbO 3 Crystals with Multi-Period and Complex Geometries / S. Grilli and P. Ferraro -- Nonlinear Optical Waveguides in Stoichiometric Lithium Tantalate / M. Marangoni and R. Ramponi -- 3-D Integrated Optical Microcircuits in Lithium Niobate Written by Spatial Solitons / E. Fazio, M. Chauvet, V. I. Vlad, A. Petris, F. Pettazzi, V. Coda and M. Alonzo -- Part II. Characterization -- Light Aided Domain Patterning and Rare Earth Emission Based Imaging of Ferroelectric Domains / V. Dierolf and C. Sandmann -- Visual and Quantitative Characterization of Ferroelectric Crystals and Related Domain Engineering Processes by Interferometric Techniques / P. Ferraro, S. Grilli, M. Paturzo and S. De Nicola -- New Insights into Ferroelectric Domain Imaging with Piezoresponse Force Microscopy / Tobias Jungk, Ákos Hoffmann and Elisabeth Soergel -- Structural Characterization of Periodically Poled Lithium Niobate Crystals by High Resolution X-Ray Diffraction / M. Bazzan, N. Argiolas, C. Sada and P. Mazzoldi -- Part III. Applications -- Nonlinear Interactions in Periodic and Quasi-periodic Nonlinear Photonic Crystals / A. Arie, A. Bahabad and N. Habshoosh -- Domain-Engineered Ferroelectric Crystals for Nonlinear and Quantum Optics / Marco Bellini, Pablo Cancio, Gianluca Gagliardi, Giovanni Giusfredi, Pasquale Maddaloni [and 2 others] -- Photonic Bandgap Properties of Lithium Niobate / N. Courjal, F. I. Baida, M.-P. Bernal, J. Dahdah, C. Guyot, H. Lu, B. Sadani and G. Ulliac -- Lithium Niobate Whispering Gallery Resonators: Applications and Fundamental Studies / L. Maleki and A. B. Matsko -- Applications of Domain Engineering in Ferroelectrics for Photonic Applications / D. A. Scrymgeour -- Electro-Optics Effect in Periodically Domain-Inverted Ferroelectrics Crystals: Principles and Applications / J. Shi and X. Chen -- The LiNbO 3 Slab Waveguide: A Platform for Terahertz Signal Generation, Detection, and Control / Christopher A. Werley and Keith A. Nelson -- Periodically-Poled Ferroelectric Crystals Based OPO--A Powerful Source for Precision Spectroscopy / M. De Rosa, E. De Tommasi, P. Maddaloni, S. Mosca, I. Ricciardi, A. Rocco, J.-J. Zondy and P. De Natale -- Electro-Optical Devices Obtained by LiNbO 3 Crystals / M. Paturzo, V. Pagliarulo, S. Grilli and P. Ferraro
Part I. Fabrication -- part II. Characterization -- part III. Applications
Summary This book deals with the latest achievements in the field of ferroelectric domain engineering and characterization at micro- and nano-scale dimensions and periods. The book collects the results obtained in the last years by world scientific leaders in the field, thus providing a valid and unique overview of the state-of-the-art and also a view to future applications of those engineered and used materials in the field of photonics. The second edition covers the major aspects of ferroelectric domain engineering and combines basic research and latest updated applications such as challenging results by introducing either new as well as extended chapters on Photonics Crystals based on Lithiunm Niobate and Lithium Tantalate crystals; generation, visualization and controlling of THz radiation; latest achievements on Optical Parametric Oscillators for application in precise spectroscopy. Furthermore recent advancements in characterization by probe scanning microscopy and optical methods with device and technological orientation. A state-of-the-art report on periodically poled processes and their characterization methods are provided on different materials (LiNbO3, KTP) furnishing update research on ferroelectric crystal by extending materials research and applications
Bibliography Includes bibliographical references and index
Notes Online resource; title from PDF title page (SpringerLink, viewed Dec. 3, 2013)
Subject Ferroelectric crystals.
Photonics.
Form Electronic book
Author Ferraro, P. (Pietro), editor
Grilli, Simonetta, 1962- editor
De Natale, Paolo, editor
ISBN 3642410863 (electronic bk)
9783642410864 (electronic bk)