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Author Otegui, Jose Luis, author

Title Failure analysis : fundamentals and applications in mechanical components / Jose Luis Otegui
Published Cham : Springer, 2014
Table of Contents
1.Introduction1
1.1.Historical Perspective1
1.2.Current Technology is Conditioned by our History2
1.3.The Danger of Myths and the Public4
1.4.Defects in Components, Ductile and Brittle Materials6
1.5.The Industrial Revolution and Failures in Pressure Components7
1.6.The Advent of Fracture Mechanics9
1.7.Scope of the Failure Analysis10
1.7.1.Example 1.A Expert Analysis After a Traffic Accident13
1.8.Concluding Remarks15
 References18
2.Tools for Preliminary Analysis of a Mechanical Failure19
2.1.Methodologies for Field Investigation After a Failure19
2.2.Collecting Data and History21
2.3.Visual Inspection Techniques and Field Photography21
2.4.How to Detect the Site of Initiation of Mechanical Failure25
2.4.1.Fractographic25
2.4.2.Example 2.A Identification of Failure Origin28
2.4.3.Initiation Site of a Fracture29
2.4.4.Example 2.B Detection of Previous In-Service Damage32
2.5.Failure of Threaded and Rotating Elements33
2.5.1.Example 2.C Failure of a Bolted Structure36
2.6.Extraction and Storage of Samples39
2.7.Inspection by NDT Techniques42
2.8.Organization of Work Teams48
 References51
3.Tools for the Microscopic Analysis of a Mechanical Failure53
3.1.Microstructural and Metallographic Characterizations of Metallic Parts53
3.2.Cutting and Preparation of Samples54
3.3.The Polycrystalline Nature of Metals58
3.4.Microscopic Examination of the Structure of Metals60
3.4.1.Example 3.A Metallographic Analysis of a Welded Pipe65
3.5.Microscopic Examination of Fracture Surfaces66
3.5.1.Example 3.B Fractographic Analysis of a Thick-Walled Tube68
3.6.Identification of Subcritical Growth Surfaces71
3.6.1.Example 3.C Failure of a Flexible Connection73
3.7.High Magnification Tools, Electron Microscopy75
3.7.1.Example 3.D SEM Analysis76
3.8.Extra-High Definition Fractographic Analyses, Nano Devices80
 References83
4.Mechanisms of Damage and Failure85
4.1.Introduction85
4.2.Failure Mechanisms87
4.3.Mechanisms of In-service Damage89
4.4.Corrosion90
4.4.1.Example 4.A Corrosion in Exchanger Tubes96
4.5.Propagation of Cracks, Fatigue100
4.5.1.Example 4.B Fatigue Failure in a Pipeline100
4.6.Hydrogen Damage104
4.7.Damage by Prolonged Exposure to High Temperature106
4.7.1.Example 4.C Fire in a Hydrocarbon Furnace107
4.8.Environment Assisted Cracking111
4.8.1.Example 4.D Cracks in a Heat Exchanger Tube Plate114
4.9.Discontinuities or Defects Introduced During Manufacture116
 References120
5.Damage Resistance Tests of Materials121
5.1.Tensile Testing122
5.1.1.Example 5.A A Stainless Steel Tube at High Temperature125
5.2.Ductile-Brittle Transition Temperature126
5.3.Experimental Determination of Fracture Toughness129
5.4.Spectrometry Analysis and Hardness Tests132
5.5.Experimental Measurement of Residual Stresses135
5.6.Experimental Determination of the Resistance to In-service Damage137
5.7.Testing of Fatigue Life138
5.8.Techniques for Corrosion Monitoring140
5.9.Estimation of SCC Propagation Rates and Threshold Stress142
5.10.Creep Resistance and Monitoring of In-service Damage144
 References148
6.Modeling Tools Applied to the Analysis of Mechanical Failures149
6.1.Introduction149
6.2.Numerical Modeling Tools152
6.2.1.Example 6.A Modeling of Soil-Pipeline Interaction155
6.3.Criteria for Modeling Pressure Components158
6.3.1.Example 6.B Stress Analysis of Damper Vessel161
6.4.Stress Analysis of Cracked Components162
6.5.Calculation of the Load Required for Brittle Fracture164
6.6.Calculation of the Conditions for Ductile Fracture168
6.6.1.Example 6.C Calculation of Applied Stress at a Pre-existing Defect170
6.7.Mechanical Modeling of Longitudinal Cracks in Pipes172
6.8.Mechanical Modeling of Fatigue Crack Propagation174
6.8.1.Example 6.D Modeling of Fatigue Crack Growth in Compressor177
6.9.Determination of Fracture Toughness in Post-failure Samples178
 References180
7.Root Cause Analyses183
7.1.Introduction183
7.2.The Explosion of the Challenger Space Shuttle184
7.3.Methodology for Root Cause Analysis187
7.3.1.Example 7.A Is a Blown Fuse a Failure?189
7.4.The Cause--Effect Tree189
7.5.Data Collection: Interviews and Statements191
7.5.1.Example 7.B Causal Tree in a "Hot Tap" Repair193
7.6.Data Collection: Documents and Records198
7.7.Rebuttal, Iteration, Coincidence, and Causality199
7.7.1.Example 7.C RCA of Failure in Directional River Crossing202
7.8.Levels in Failure Analyses209
7.9.Alternative Formats for a Failure Investigation212
7.9.1.Example 7.D RCA of Fire in a Heater at a Petrochemical Plant214
 References217
8.Damage and Failure Mechanisms in Machinery219
8.1.Definition of Failure in Machinery219
8.2.Modes of Failure in Shafts220
8.2.1.Example 8.A Failure of Shaft in a Hydraulic Pump220
8.3.Failures of Bearings221
8.3.1.Example 8.B Failure of Bearing in A.C. Generator225
8.4.Failure in Sliding or Plain Bearings227
8.4.1.Example 8.C Failure of Sliding Bearing in a Large Gas Engine228
8.5.Failure of Transmission Elements: Gears and Couplings230
8.5.1.Gears230
8.5.2.Couplings233
8.5.3.Example 8.D Failure of a Flexible Coupling234
8.6.Failure of Fasteners, Bolts, and Other Threaded Elements237
8.6.1.Example 8.E Failure of an Allen Type Fastening Bolt in a Compressor Piston Head241
8.7.Characteristic Failures in Turbo Machines244
8.7.1.Steam Turbines244
8.7.2.Example 8.F Failure in the Rotor of a Steam Turbine246
8.7.3.Gas Turbines247
 References250
9.Failure Mitigation and Extension of Service Life251
9.1.Introduction and Historical Perspective251
9.2.Failure Mode and Effect Assessment253
9.3.Procedures for Assessing Fitness for Service255
9.4.Evaluation of General and Local Loss of Thickness257
9.5.Evaluation of Geometrical Discontinuities and Cracks259
9.6.The Leak Before Break Criterion for Pressurized Components264
9.7.Monitoring Damage and Stresses During Service264
9.8.Strength Tests Using Instrumented Indentation270
9.9.Monitoring of Machines271
9.9.1.Vibration Analysis273
9.9.2.Lubricant Analyses274
9.9.3.Acoustic Emission Analysis275
9.9.4.Analysis by Infrared Thermography276
9.10.Estimation of Residual Life Against Damage Mechanisms276
9.10.1.Example 9.A Fatigue Life Prediction in a Pipeline278
 References281
10.Consequences of a Failure Analysis283
10.1.Writing Reports After a Failure Analysis283
10.2.Failure Analysis in Potentially Litigious Cases285
10.3.Learning or not Learning from Accidents, Here the Question288
10.4.On Human Error291
10.5.Human Errors at Different Levels, the Chernobyl Case293
10.5.1.The Worst Nuclear Disaster293
10.5.2.Levels in the Chain of Human Errors295
10.6.Business Impositions and Political Decision-Making297
10.6.1.Example 10.A Incident on a Water Pumping Plant298
10.7.The Rules are Relaxed: The Case of the Macondo Oil Well301
10.8.Underestimating Consequences of Natural Events, the Fukushima Event305
10.9.Management of Old Plants and Equipment307
10.10.Causes and Consequences of the Most Famous Accident310
 References313
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Description 1 online resource (xix, 313 pages) : illustrations
Contents Tools for Preliminary Analysis of a Mechanical Failure -- Tools for the Microscopic Analysis of a Mechanical Failure -- Damage and Failure Mechanisms -- Characterization and Testing of Materials -- Mechanical Modelling Tools applied to Failure Analysis -- Root Cause Analysis -- Damage and Failure Mechanisms in Machinery -- Mitigation and Life Prediction -- Consequences of a Failure Analysis
Summary This book addresses the failures of structural elements, i.e. those components whose primary mission is to withstand mechanical loads. The book is intended as a self-contained source for those with different technical grades, engineers and scientists but also technicians in the field can benefit from its reading
Bibliography Includes bibliographical references
Subject Failure analysis (Engineering)
Form Electronic book
ISBN 3319039091
3319039105 (electronic bk.)
9783319039091
9783319039107 (electronic bk.)