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Book Cover
Author Rutten, Geert-Jan, author

Title The Broca-Wernicke doctrine : a historical and clinical perspective on localization of language functions / Geert-Jan Rutten
Published Cham, Switzerland : Springer, 2017


Description 1 online resource (xvii, 306 pages) : illustrations (some color)
Contents What This Book Is About; Personal Experience; Removal of Classic Language Areas; Back to the Future; Classic Authors with Modern Opinions; Acknowledgements; Contents; 1: Broca and the Birth of Localization Theories; 1.1 Gall; 1.2 Flourens; 1.3 Bouillaud and Broca; 1.4 Trousseau and Marie; 1.5 The Era of CT and MRI; 1.6 From Single Words to Sentences; References; 2: Wernicke and Connectionism; 2.1 Meynert; 2.2 The Symptom Complex of Aphasia, Part I; 2.3 The Symptom Complex of Aphasia, Part II; 2.3.1 Lesion of the Acoustic Nerve
2.3.2 Lesion of the Auditory Memory Centre: 'Wernicke's Aphasia' A Modern Definition of Wernicke's Aphasia; Agraphia and Alexia; 2.3.3 Lesion of Tract ab; A Modern Definition and Anatomical Substrate of Conduction Aphasia; 2.3.4 Lesion of Movement Centre b; 2.3.5 Lesion of the Efferent Tract b; 2.4 The Symptom Complex of Aphasia, Part III; 2.5 Wernicke and the Anatomy of Language Areas; References; 3: Aphasia or Agnosia?; 3.1 Lissauer; 3.2 Freund; 3.3 A Systematic Approach to the Anomic Patient; References; 4: The Diagram Makers and Their Critics
4.1 Lichtheim4.2 Kussmaul; 4.3 Hughlings Jackson; 4.4 Freud; 4.5 Marie, Head and the Decline of Localism; References; 5: Naming and Numbering the Convolutions; 5.1 Ecker, Leuret and Gratiolet: Order Out of Chaos; 5.2 Microscopic Cartography; 5.2.1 Brodmann; 5.2.2 Campbell; 5.3 Language Areas Defined in Terms of Gyri and Sulci; 5.3.1 Broca's Area; 5.3.2 The Planum Temporale; 5.4 Some Concluding Remarks; References; 6: Mapping and Lesioning the Living Brain; 6.1 Fritsch and Hitzig; 6.2 Ferrier; 6.3 Sherrington and Grunbaum: The Primate Motor Cortex
6.4 Krause, Foerster and Penfield: The Human Motor Cortex6.5 Bartholow and Cushing: First Experiences from Conscious Patients; 6.6 Penfield's Speech and Brain Mechanisms; 6.7 Ojemann: Expanding the Language Territory; 6.8 Duffau: Subcortical Pathways and Hodology; 6.9 The Wada Test and Electrical Stimulation Mapping: Gold Standards by Default; 6.9.1 Language Dominance; 6.9.2 Wada Test; 6.9.3 Electrocortical Stimulation Mapping; References; 7: Neo-connectionism, Neurodynamics and Large-Scale Networks; 7.1 Geschwind; 7.1.1 Neo-connectionism; 7.2 Luria; 7.2.1 Functional Systems
7.2.2 Aphasia7.2.2.1 Phonemic (Sensory) Aphasia; Articulatory (Motor) Aphasia; Semantic (Amnestic) Aphasia; Dynamic Aphasia; 7.3 Computational Models and Parallel Processing; 7.4 Language and Evolution; 7.4.1 Homologue Language Areas in Non-human Primates; Cortical Areas; Subcortical Pathways; 7.5 Mesulam, Hickok and Poeppel; 7.5.1 Epicentres; 7.5.2 Dual-Stream Models; 7.5.3 Phonological Loop; The Problem of Definitions; References; 8: Functional MRI; 8.1 Brief Introduction to the Method; 8.1.1 Task Conditions
Summary This book discusses theories that link functions to specific anatomical brain regions. The best known of these are the Broca and Wernicke regions, and these have become synonyms for the location of productive and receptive language functions respectively. This Broca-Wernicke model has proved to be such a powerful concept that is remains the predominant view in modern clinical practice. What is fascinating, however, is that there is little evidence for this strictly localist view on language functions. Modern neuroscience and numerous clinical observations in individual patients show that language functions are represented in complex and ever-changing neural networks. It is fair to say that the model is wrong, and that Broca's and Wernicke's areas in their classic forms do not exist. This is a fascinating paradox: why do neurologists and neurosurgeons continue to use these iconic language models in everyday decision-making? In this book, the author uses his background as a neurosurgeon and a neuroscientist to provide some answers to this question. The book acquaints clinicians and researchers with the many different aspects of language representation in the brain. It provides a historical overview of functional localisation, as well as insights into the misjudgements that have kept the localist doctrine alive. It creates an awareness of the need to integrate clinical observations and neuroscientific theories if we want to progress further in clinical language research and patient care
Bibliography Includes bibliographical references
Notes Online resource; title from PDF title page (SpringerLink, viewed July 18, 2017)
Subject Brain -- Localization of functions.
Broca's area.
Language and languages -- Physiological aspects.
Brain Mapping
Broca Area
MEDICAL -- Physiology.
SCIENCE -- Life Sciences -- Human Anatomy & Physiology.
Brain -- Localization of functions
Broca's area
Language and languages -- Physiological aspects
Genre/Form History
Form Electronic book
ISBN 9783319546339