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Book Cover
E-book
Author Hall, Stephen (Stephen M.), author.

Title Rules of thumb for chemical engineers / Stephen M. Hall
Edition Sixth edition
Published Amsterdam, Netherlands ; Oxford, United Kingdom ; Cambridge, MA : Elsevier, [2018]
©2018

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Description 1 online resource (xiii, 502 pages) : illustrations, charts
Contents Machine generated contents note: 1. Safety -- Introduction -- Process Safety Management (PSM) -- Process Hazard Analysis (PHA) -- Safe Design Practices -- Emergency Vent Systems -- Fire Outside the Vessel -- Runaway Reaction -- Blocked-In Line -- Flash Point of Binary Mixtures -- Deflagration Prevention or Control -- Prevent Backflow -- Equipment Purging -- Dilution Purging -- Displacement Purging -- Pressure-Cycle Purging -- Evacuation-Replacement Purging -- Electrical Area Classification -- Causes for Loss of Containment -- Dust Explosion Hazards -- References -- Further Reading -- 2. Process Evaluation -- Introduction -- Accuracy of Cost Estimates -- Definition of Scope -- Treatment of Uncertainty and Contingency -- User Requirements -- Block Diagrams -- Process Flow Diagrams (PFDs) -- Basis of Design (BOD) -- Block-Sequential Diagrams -- Piping & Instrumentation Diagrams (P & IDs) -- Factory Assembled Skids and Modules -- Data Sheets and Specifications -- Capital Cost Estimates -- Organization of a Cost Estimate -- Example of a Screening Estimate for a Refinery -- Engineering -- Reference -- 3. Process Modeling -- Introduction -- Concepts and Terminology -- Equipment Design -- Mass and Energy Transfer -- Flow Sheet Simulation -- Continuous Process -- Flow Sheet Simulation -- Dynamic Process -- Discrete Process Simulation -- General Purpose Simulation Environments -- Software List -- References -- 4. Fluid Flow -- Introduction -- Data Required -- Design Documents -- Material and Energy Balance -- Physical Properties of the Materials -- General Procedure -- Recommended Velocity -- Compressible Flow of a Gas -- Oil/Gas Mixtures -- Check Valves -- Equivalent Length -- Shortcut Equation for Pressure Drop Due to Friction -- Reynolds Number -- Friction Factor -- Surface Roughness -- Incompressible Flow -- Compressible Flow -- Isothermal -- Compressible Flow -- Transmission Equations -- Weymouth Equation -- Panhandle A Equation -- Panhandle B Equation -- Compressible Flow -- Adiabatic -- Visual Basic Subroutines for Pressure Drop Due to Friction -- Reynolds Number -- Darcy Friction Factor -- Pressure Drop Due to Friction -- Orifices -- Incompressible Flow (Liquids) -- Compressible Flow (Gases) -- Control Valves -- Water Hammer -- Partially Full Horizontal Pipes -- Two-Phase Flow -- Lockhart-Martinelli -- Homogeneous Model -- Split Bounds Model -- Asymptotic Model -- Comparison of the Two-Phase Models -- References -- Further Reading -- 5. Vessels -- Introduction -- Cost Considerations -- Safety Considerations -- General Rules of Thumb for Vessels -- Atmospheric Storage Tanks -- Pressure Vessels and Reactors -- Tank Dimensions -- Liquid Volume at Any Fill Height -- Time to Drain a Tank -- Emissions From Storage Tanks -- Load Cells -- Liquid-Liquid Separators -- Vapor-Liquid Separators -- Liquid Surge Volume -- Vapor Velocity in the Disengagement Section -- Vapor-Liquid Separator Size -- Vertical Separator -- Horizontal Separator -- Horizontal Drum With Water Separation -- Vessel Specifications -- Good Engineering Practices for Storage Tank and Vent Relief Design -- References -- Further Reading -- 6. Blending and Agitation -- Introduction -- Safety Considerations -- Basics -- Impeller Types -- Dimensional Analysis -- Reynolds Number and Turbulence -- Pumping Number -- Power and Power Number -- Blending -- Newtonian Fluids in Turbulent or Transitional Flow -- Shear-Thinning Fluids -- Laminar Flow Regime -- Solids Suspension -- Terminal Settling Velocity -- Scale of Agitation -- Number and Location of Impellers -- Impeller Speed and Agitator Power -- Gas Dispersion -- In-Line Mixers -- High-Shear Mixers -- Mixing Solids -- Mechanical Design -- Torque -- Shaft Diameter -- Impeller Weight -- Critical Speed -- References -- Further Reading -- 7. Pumps -- Introduction -- Safety Considerations -- Pump Types and Selection -- Centrifugal Pumps -- Positive Displacement Pumps -- Pump Specification Checklist -- Good Design Practice -- Pump Testing -- System Curves -- Sensitivity -- Operating Point-and-Pump Selection -- Flow Control With Throttling Valve -- Control Valve -- Charting Control Characteristics -- Flow Control by Changing the Pump Speed -- Affinity Laws -- Power -- Minimum Flow -- Temperature Rise -- Suction System NPSH Available -- Suction System NPSH for Studies -- Multiple Centrifugal Pumps in Parallel or Series -- References -- Further Reading -- 8. Fans, Blowers, and Compressors -- Introduction -- Safety Considerations -- Rules of Thumb -- Rules of Thumb (Compressors) -- Good Engineering Practice -- Compressed Air Systems -- Fans -- Fan Noise -- Blower Types -- Compressor Types -- Surge Control -- Performance Calculations -- Definitions -- Affinity Laws -- Power -- Fan -- Power -- Reciprocating Compressor -- Power -- Centrifugal Compressor -- Comparison With Manufacturer's Data -- Power With P-E Diagram -- Cost of Compressed Air -- Receiver Volume -- Time to Pump System to Pressure -- References -- Further Reading -- 9. Vacuum Systems -- Introduction -- Safety Considerations -- Vacuum Units -- Conversion Between Mass Flow, Actual Volume Flow, and Standard Volume Flow -- Comparison of Vacuum Equipment -- Vacuum Jets -- Liquid-Ring Vacuum Pumps -- Correcting for Seal Liquid Temperature and Composition -- Dry Vacuum Pumps -- Typical Jet Systems -- Steam Supply -- Measuring Air Leakage -- Time to Evacuate -- Instrumentation and Controls -- References -- Further Reading -- 10. Pneumatic Conveying -- Introduction -- Safety Considerations -- Flow Regimes -- Types of Systems -- System Design Procedure -- Saltation Velocity -- Pressure Drop -- Pressure Drop of Carrier Gas -- Acceleration of Solids -- Friction of Solids in Straight Pipe -- Friction of Solids in Elbows -- Lifting of Solids Through Vertical Sections -- Miscellaneous Factors -- Prime Movers -- Feed Systems -- Silos -- Conveyor Piping -- Disengagement -- References -- 11. Filtration -- Introduction -- Basket Strainers -- Cartridge Filters -- Vacuum Drum Filters -- Filter Presses -- Membrane Filters -- References -- 12. Heat Exchangers -- Introduction -- Safety Considerations -- TEMA -- Selection Guides -- Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers -- Plate-and-Frame Heat Exchangers -- Spiral Heat Exchangers -- Helical Coil Heat Exchangers -- Design Recommendations -- Process Data -- Heat Exchanger Configuration and Area -- Determining the LMTD Configuration Correction Factor -- Tube Side Pressure Drop -- Tube Side Film Coefficient -- Shell Diameter -- Ideal Shell Side Film Coefficient -- Shell Side Film Coefficient Correction Factors -- Baffle Cut and Spacing, Jc -- Baffle Leakage Effects, Jl -- Bundle and Partition Bypass Effects, Jb -- Variations in Baffle Spacing, Js -- Temperature Gradient for Laminar Flow Regime, Jr. -- Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient -- Shell Side Pressure Drop -- Heat Transfer Coefficients -- Fouling Resistances -- Installation Recommendations -- Thermal Conductivity of Metals -- Vacuum Condensers -- Air-cooled Heat Exchangers: Forced vs
Induced Draft -- Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers: Air Data -- Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers: Thermal Design -- Air-Side Heat Transfer Coefficient -- Air-cooled Heat Exchangers: Pressure Drop, Air Side -- Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers: Temperature Control -- References -- Further Reading -- 13. Closed-Loop Heat Transfer Systems -- Introduction -- Safety Considerations -- Selecting the Heat Transfer Fluid -- Types of Heat Transfer Fluids -- Heat Transfer Coefficient -- System Design -- Temperature Control -- Case 1: Single-Temperature Central System -- Case 2: Dual-Temperature Central System -- Case 3: Three-Temperature Central System -- Physical Properties of Commercial Heat Transfer Fluids -- References -- 14. Fractionators -- Introduction -- Safety Considerations -- Separation Factor -- Relative Volatility -- Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium (VLE) -- Activity Coefficients -- Sources for Activity Coefficients -- Establishing the Column Pressure -- Minimum Reflux -- Binary -- Bubble Point Liquid Feed -- Dew Point Vapor Feed -- Minimum Reflux -- Multicomponent -- Minimum Stages -- Relationship of Theoretical Stages to Reflux Ratio -- Feed Location -- Reflux-to-Feed Ratio -- Actual Trays -- Graphical Methods -- The McCabe-Thiele Diagram -- Plotting With Murphree Tray Efficiency -- Tray Efficiency Rules of Thumb -- Using the McCabe-Thiele Plot -- Column Internals -- Trays and Packing -- Column Tray Spacing -- Tower Diameter -- Souders-Brown Correlation -- Pressure Drop -- Trays -- Control Schemes -- Flow -- Column Pressure -- Level in the Overhead Receiver -- Level in the Bottom of the Tower -- Composition Control -- Constraints -- Reboilers -- Packed Columns -- References -- Further Reading -- 15. Absorbers -- Introduction -- Safety Considerations -- Hydrocarbon Absorber Design -- Inorganic Absorbers -- Packing Height for Mass Transfer in Packed Columns -- Overall Mass Transfer Coefficient -- References -- Further Reading -- 16. Controls -- Introduction -- Basic Nomenclature -- Definitions of Control Modes -- Proportional Control -- Integral (Reset) Control -- Derivative Control -- Cascade Control -- Specifying Instruments to Measure Values -- Control Ranges -- Drawing Conventions -- Artistic Expression -- Safety Instrumented Systems
Note continued: Enclosures: NEMA and IP -- References -- Further Reading -- 17. Biopharmaceutical Systems -- Introduction -- Facility Design and Sterilization Best Practices -- General Design Considerations -- System Design Considerations -- CIP System Design Considerations -- Sterilize (or Sanitize)-in Place (SIP) System Design Considerations -- Disposable Systems -- Disposable System Economic Evaluation -- Disposable System Environmental Life Cycle Assessment -- Open or Closed? -- Contamination Root Causes -- Design and Sterile Boundary Faults -- Equipment Faults -- Human Error (Procedures, Execution) -- Contamination Investigation and Recovery -- Time Is of the Essence -- Go for Data -- Widen the Search -- Get Hands-On -- Time to Open Up -- Experimental -- Microbiology Investigation -- Risk Assessment -- Validation -- References -- Further Reading -- 18. Bioprocessing -- Introduction -- Bioreactor Systems -- Typical Geometric and Engineering Parameters -- Bioreactor Controllers -- Clean Gas Supply to Bioreactors -- Oxygen Transfer -- Heat Transfer -- pH Control -- Downstream Processes -- Chromatography Purification -- Buffer Prep -- Liquid Waste Inactivation -- References -- 19. Energy Conservation -- Introduction -- Calculating Steam Cost -- Steam System Rules of Thumb -- Equivalent Cost of Fuels -- Steam Traps -- Energy Efficient Design for Fractionators -- Pinch Analysis -- Insulation -- References -- 20. Drivers -- Introduction -- Electric Motors -- Motor Voltages -- Motors: Efficiency -- Motors: Starter Sizes -- Motors: Useful Equations -- Motors: Overloading -- Air-Driven Motors -- Hydraulic Motors -- Steam Turbines: Steam Rate -- Steam Turbines: Efficiency -- Gas Turbines: Performance -- Internal Combustion Engines: Fuel Rates -- Gas Expanders: Available Energy -- References -- 21. Boilers -- Introduction -- Boiler Horsepower -- Types of Packaged Boilers -- Power Plants -- Controls -- Thermal Efficiency -- Stack Gas Enthalpy -- Steam Drum Stability -- Deaerator Venting -- Water Alkalinity -- Source Water Impurities -- Conductivity Versus Dissolved Solids -- Silica in Steam -- Caustic Embrittlement -- Waste Heat -- Boiler Feedwater -- Blowdown Control -- Best Practices -- Burner System Piping -- References -- Further Reading -- 22. Cooling Towers -- Introduction -- Safety Considerations -- Mechanical Draft Cooling Towers -- Material and Energy Balance Calculations -- Rating Nomenclature -- Performance Calculations -- Operations and Accessories -- Water Quality Guidelines -- Scale Prevention -- References -- 23. Refrigeration -- Introduction -- Specifications -- Indirect and Direct System Design -- Horsepower Per Ton -- Refrigerants -- Refrigerant Containment -- Steam Jet Ejectors -- Ammonia Absorption Utilities Requirements -- Ammonia Heat Transfer Coefficient -- References -- 24. Reliability -- Introduction -- Initial Design -- Risk Analysis -- Sustainable Practices -- References -- Further Reading -- 25. Metallurgy -- Introduction -- Cost Comparison -- Embodied Energy -- Embrittlement -- Stress-Corrosion Cracking -- Hydrogen Attack -- Pitting Corrosion -- Creep and Creep-Rupture Life -- Naphthenic Acid Corrosion -- Thermal Fatigue -- Abrasive Wear -- Pipeline Toughness -- Common Corrosion Mistakes -- References -- Further Reading -- 26. Troubleshooting -- Introduction -- General Troubleshooting Approach -- Diagnostic Tools -- Instruments -- Control Valves (Process Control) -- Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers -- Plate-and-Frame Heat Exchangers (PHEs) -- Fractionation Towers -- Fractionation Case Histories -- Pinch -- Key Components -- Profiles -- Troubleshooting Technique -- Cutting Corners -- Trapped Water -- Cocurrent -- Foaming -- Stacking Packing -- Tray Supports -- Boilup Control -- Condenser Velocity -- Blind Blind -- Temperature Control of Both Ends -- Nozzle Bottleneck -- Hatless Riser -- Tilted Distributor -- Hammer -- Aeration -- Siphoning -- Hot-Vapor Rules Bypassed -- Trapped -- Centrifugal Pumps -- Compressors -- Steam Jet Vacuum Systems -- Refrigeration -- References -- Further Reading -- 27. Startup -- Introduction -- Startup Management -- Change Control During Startup -- Startup Cost -- Systems Approach -- Construction Quality -- Startup Checklists -- Operating Modes -- Normal Startup -- Normal Operation -- Normal Shutdown -- Emergency Shutdown -- Prolonged Shutdown -- References -- 28. Conversion Factors and Constants -- Significant Figures and Rounding -- Gas Constant -- Standard Gas Volume -- Atmospheric Pressure -- Irrigation Conversion -- References -- 29. Properties -- Introduction -- Approximate Physical Properties -- Vapor-Pressure Equation -- Liquid Viscosity -- Dynamic (or Absolute) Viscosity -- Kinematic Viscosity -- Viscosity of Mixtures -- Emulsions -- Saybolt Universal Seconds -- Relative Humidity -- Nomenclature -- Surface Tension -- Thermodynamic Properties of Water and Steam -- Gas Diffusion Coefficients -- Bulk Modulus -- Water and Hydrocarbons -- Water in Natural Gas -- Hydrocarbons in Water -- Methanol Injection -- Compressibility Factor -- Inorganic Gases in Petroleum -- Foam Density -- Equivalent Diameter -- Estimating Equivalent Diameter of Solids -- Properties Data Sheet -- References -- Further Reading
Summary "Rules of Thumb for Chemical Engineers, Sixth Edition, is the most complete guide for chemical and process engineers who need reliable and authoritative solutions to on-the-job problems. The text is comprehensively revised and updated with new data and formulas. The book helps solve process design problems quickly, accurately and safely, with hundreds of common sense techniques, shortcuts and calculations. Its concise sections detail the steps needed to answer critical design questions and challenges. The book discusses physical properties for proprietary materials, pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical sector heuristics, process design, closed-loop heat transfer systems, heat exchangers, packed columns and structured packings. This book will help you: save time you no longer have to spend on theory or derivations; improve accuracy by exploiting well tested and accepted methods culled from industry experts; and save money by reducing reliance on consultants. The book brings together solutions, information and work-arounds from engineers in the process industry."--Provided by publisher
Bibliography Includes bibliographical references and index
Notes Online resource; title from PDF title page (EBSCO, viewed November 1, 2017)
Subject Chemical engineering -- Handbooks, manuals, etc
SCIENCE -- Chemistry -- Industrial & Technical.
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING -- Chemical & Biochemical.
Chemical engineering
Genre/Form handbooks.
Handbooks and manuals
Handbooks and manuals.
Guides et manuels.
Form Electronic book
ISBN 9780128110386
0128110384
9780128110379
0128110376