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E-book
Author Abu-Madi, Maher Omar Rushdi, author

Title Incentive Systems for Wastewater Treatment and Reuse in Irrigated Agriculture in the MENA Region, Evidence from Jordan and Tunisia / Maher Omar Rushdi Abu-Madi
Edition First edition
Published Boca Raton, FL : CRC Press, 2014
Online access available from:
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Description 1 online resource : text file, PDF
Contents Cover; Half Title; Title Page; Copyright Page; Dedication; Table of Contents; SUMMARY; ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS; CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION; 1.1 Background; 1.2 Problem description; 1.3 Objective; 1.4 Scope of the study; 1.5 Approach of the Study; 1.5.1 Fieldwork in Jordan and Tunisia; 1.5.2 Preparation and pilot testing of questionnaires; 1.5.3 Selection and size of sample; 1.5.4 Reliability of collected data; 1.6 Structure of the thesis; 1.7 References; CHAPTER 2: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYSIS OF WASTEWATER UTILIZATION; 2.1 Introduction; 2.2 Wastewater utilization; 2.2.1 General
2.2.2 Wastewater production2.2.3 Wastewater collection; 2.2.4 Wastewater treatment; 2.2.5 Wastewater reuse; 2.3 Quantification of achievements in wastewater utilization; 2.3.1 Background; 2.3.2 Wastewater Reuse Index (WRI); 2.4 The incentive systems for improved utilization of reclaimed wastewater; 2.5 Conclusions and recommendations; 2.6 References; CHAPTER 3: THE STUDY AREA; 3.1 Jordan; 3.1.1 Population, topography, and climate; 3.1.2 Water resources; 3.1.3 Agriculture; 3.1.4 Water supply, sanitation, and reuse; 3.2 Tunisia; 3.2.1 Population, topography, and climate; 3.2.2 Water resources
3.2.3 Agriculture3.2.4 Water supply, sanitation, and reuse; 3.3 References; CHAPTER 4: PERFORMANCE AND COST OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN JORDAN AND TUNISIA; 4.1 Introduction; 4.2 Objective; 4.3 Technical performance of the treatment systems; 4.3.1 Data collection and analysis; 4.3.2 Effluent quality; 4.3.3 Land requirement; 4.4 Financial performance of the treatment plants; 4.4.1 Analysis; 4.4.2 Capital costs of treatment (CAPEX); 4.4.3 Operation and maintenance costs of treatment (OPEX); 4.4.4 Total costs of treatment (TOTEX) and economies of scale
4.5 The enabling environment for wastewater treatment4.5.1 Approach; 4.5.2 Regulatory and institutional framework; 4.5.3 Financial capability; 4.5.4 Technical capacity to manage wastewater treatment; 4.6 Conclusions and recommendations; 4.7 References; CHAPTER 5: THE INCENTIVE SYSTEMS FOR USE OF RECLAIMED WASTEWATER IN IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE; 5.1 Introduction; 5.2 Objective and approach; 5.3 Results and discussion; 5.3.1 Identifying the factors that influence utilization of reclaimed wastewater; 5.3.2 Quantity of available reclaimed wastewater; 5.3.3 Quality of the reclaimed wastewater
5.3.4 Financial and economic impact5.3.5 Institutional and legal framework; 5.3.6 Survey of the socio-cultural factors in wastewater reuse for irrigation; 5.4 Conclusions and recommendations; 5.5 References; CHAPTER 6: VIABILITY OF INCREASING THE TARIFF OF FRESHWATER FOR IRRIGATION AS A TOOL TO STIMULATE WASTEWATER REUSE; 6.1 Background; 6.2 Problem description; 6.3 Objective and methodology; 6.3.1 Objective; 6.3.2 Methodology; 6.4 Results and discussion; 6.4.1 Agricultural profitability at the existing water tariffs
Summary "In the countries of the Middle East and Northern Africa, reclaimed wastewater is recognized as a non-conventional water resource. However, substandial amounts are still discharged into water courses without further treatment. The objective of this research was to analyse the technological, regulatory, institutional, financial and socio-cultural opportunities, seen as incentives; and the constraints, perceived as disincentives, which influence the adoption of wastewater treatment and reuse. Fieldwork was carried out in Jordan and Tunisia, countries which have made great strides in raising the proportion of re-used wastewater. Unexpectedly, farmers and customers proved well-prepared to use reclaimed water in irrigation, and to buy crops raised in the irrigated fields. Abu-Madi stresses the need for raising the price of freshwater, reflecting its true scarcity, thus creating a stronger incentive to utilise reclaimed wastewater."--Provided by publisher
Subject Global environmental change
Pollution
Waterworks
BUSINESS & ECONOMICS -- Infrastructure.
Global environmental change.
Pollution.
SOCIAL SCIENCE -- General.
Waterworks.
Form Electronic book
ISBN 1482284057
9781482284058