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Author Burkholder, Zoë, author.

Title An African American dilemma : a history of school integration and civil rights in the North / Zoë Burkholder
Published New York, NY : Oxford University Press, [2021]


Description 1 online resource (xi, 297 pages) : illustrations
Contents Introduction -- Caste abolished : integration for freedom, 1840-1900 -- The education that is their due : separation for racial uplift, 1900-1940 -- A powerful weapon : integration for equality, 1940-1965 -- Conflict in the community : separation for Black Power, 1966-1974 -- An armageddon of righteousness : integration for justice, 1974-present -- Conclusion
Summary "Since Brown v. Board of Education in 1954 Americans have viewed school integration as a central tenet of the black civil rights movement. Yet, school integration was not the only-or even always the dominant-civil rights strategy. At times, African Americans also fought for separate, Black-controlled schools dedicated to racial uplift, community empowerment, and self-determination. An African American Dilemma offers a social history of debates over school integration within northern Black communities from the 1840s to the present. This broad geographical and temporal focus reveals that northern Black educational activists vacillated between a preference for either school integration or separation during specific eras. Yet, as there was never a consensus, this study also highlights the chorus of dissent, debate, and counter-narratives that pushed families to consider a fuller range of educational reforms. A sweeping historical analysis that covers the entire history of public education in the North, this study complicates our understanding of school integration by highlighting the diverse perspectives of Black students, parents, teachers, and community leaders all committed to improving public education. It finds that Black school integrationists and separatists have worked together in a dynamic tension that fueled effective strategies for educational reform and the black civil rights movement. This study draws on an enormous range of archival data including the black press, school board records, social science studies, the papers of civil rights activists, and court cases"-- Provided by publisher
Bibliography Includes bibliographical references and index
Notes Description based on online resource; title from digital title page (Oxford Scholarship Online, viewed November 19, 2021)
Subject School integration -- Northeastern States -- History
African American schools -- Northeastern States -- History
Public schools -- Northeastern States -- History
Segregation in education -- Northeastern States -- History
African Americans -- Education -- Northeastern States -- History
African Americans -- Civil rights -- Northeastern States -- History
African American schools.
African Americans -- Civil rights.
African Americans -- Education.
Public schools.
School integration.
Segregation in education.
Northeastern States.
Genre/Form Electronic books
Form Electronic book
LC no. 2020049214
ISBN 9780190605162