Limit search to available items
Book Cover

Title Brain and lung crosstalk / Hemanshu Prabhakar, Charu Mahajan, editors
Published Singapore : Springer, 2020


Description 1 online resource (111 pages)
Series Physiology in clinical neurosciences
Physiology in clinical neurosciences (Series)
Contents Intro -- Preface -- Acknowledgement -- Contents -- About the Editors -- 1: Neurophysiology of Respiratory System -- 1.1 Introduction -- 1.2 Historical Perspective -- 1.3 Phases of Respiration -- 1.4 Basic Architecture of Neural Network for Control of Respiration -- 1.5 Neural Substrate for Control of Respiration -- 1.5.1 Pre-Bötzinger Complex (Pre-BotC) -- 1.5.2 Post-Inspiratory Complex (PICO) -- 1.5.3 Parafacial Respiratory Group (pFRG) -- Lateral Parafacial Respiratory Group (Lateral pFRG) -- Retrotrapezoid Nucleus (RTN)/Ventral Parafacial Respiratory Group Botzinger Complex (BotC) -- Kölliker-Fuse (KF) -- 1.6 Afferents -- 1.6.1 Peripheral Chemoreceptor -- Carotid Body -- Aortic Bodies -- 1.6.2 Central Chemoreceptor -- Mechanism of CO2/H+ Sensing -- 1.6.3 Mechanoreceptors and Chemosensitive Receptors in Lungs -- Mechanoreceptors -- Chemosensitive Receptors -- 1.6.4 Metabotropic Receptors in Muscles -- 1.6.5 Central Pathways and NTS -- 1.7 Neural Network for the Respiratory Rhythm -- 1.7.1 Neural Substrate for Inspiratory Rhythm -- Pacemaker Model Burstlet Model (Modification of Group Pacemaker Model) -- Network Ring Model -- 1.7.2 Neural Substrate for Post-Inspiratory Phase -- 1.7.3 Neural Network for Active Expiration -- 1.7.4 Neural Network for Sighs -- 1.8 Neural Network for Respiratory Pattern -- 1.8.1 Phase Switching -- 1.8.2 Proposed Operation of the Model -- References -- 2: Physiological Modulation of Respiration and Respiratory Reflexes -- 2.1 Introduction -- 2.2 Ventilatory Response to Changes in PaO2 and PaCO2 and Exercise -- 2.2.1 Hypoxic Ventilatory Response Effect of Intensity of Hypoxia on HVR -- Effect of Duration of Hypoxia on HVR -- Effect of Intermittent Hypoxia on HVR, Long-Term Facilitation -- 2.2.2 Hypercapnic Ventilatory Response and Effect of pH -- 2.2.3 Mechanism of Hypoxic Ventilatory Response and Hypercapneic Ventilatory Response -- 2.2.4 Arousal in Hypoxia and Hypercapnia -- 2.2.5 Exercise Hyperpnea -- Ventilatory Changes During Exercise -- Mechanism of Exercise Hyperpnea -- Plasticity of the Exercise Hyperpnea -- 2.3 Respiratory Reflexes
2.3.1 Reflexes for Protection and Clearing of Airways -- Nasotrigeminal Reflex -- Sneeze Reflex -- Aspiration Reflex -- Expiration Reflex -- Tracheo-bronchial Cough Reflex -- 2.3.2 Reflexes for Modulation of Respiration -- Reflexes Originating from Mechanoreceptors -- Reflexes from C-type Unmyelinated Fibres -- Upper Airway Negative Pressure Reflex -- Sigh and Gasps -- 2.3.3 Modulation of Breathing in Behavioural States and Non-respiratory Motor Activities
Summary The central nervous system, which includes the brain and spinal cord, has a high metabolic demand. The physiology of the brain is such that it is easily affected by alterations in other systems, which in turn can compromise cerebral blood flow and oxygenation. Together the brain and spinal cord control the automatic function of our body systems. While other systems of body controls individual functions, central nervous system at the same time does many different functions, especially, controlling the function of other systems. This interaction between the brain and other systems is important when it comes to understanding how injuries to the brain can, at times, produce complications in remote organs or systems of the body, such as the lungs. This book explains the lesser-known crosstalks between acutely or chronically affected brain and lung, describing the pathophysiology of the lung following brain injury and discussing in detail the conflicts between the brain and lungs in relation to the tidal volumes, positive end-expiratory pressures, arterial carbon dioxide and oxygen levels, recruitment maneuvers and positioning, as well as potential therapeutic targets
Notes Periaqueductal Grey as Coordinator of Respiration with Other Motor and Non-motor Behaviours
Print version record
Subject Neurophysiology.
Medul·la espinal.
Genre/Form Electronic books
Llibres electrònics.
Form Electronic book
Author Prabhakar, Hemanshu.
Mahajan, Charu.
ISBN 9789811523458