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Book Cover
E-book
Author Wypych, George, author

Title Handbook of material weathering / George Wypych
Edition Fifth edition
Published Toronto : ChemTec Publishing, 2013
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Description 1 online resource
Contents Machine generated contents note: 1.1.Nature of radiation -- 1.1.1.Radiative energy -- 1.1.2.Radiation intensity -- 1.1.3.Radiation incidence -- 1.2.Absorption of radiation by materials -- 1.2.1.General principles -- 1.3.Fate and utilization of absorbed energy -- 1.3.1.Deactivation -- 1.3.2.Intramolecular energy transfer -- 1.3.3.Intermolecular energy transfer -- 1.3.4.Luminescence -- 1.4.Radiative processes involving dimers -- 1.5.Modeling and photophysical data -- References -- 2.1.Typical routes of photochemical reactions -- 2.1.1.Photodissociation -- 2.1.2.Photooxidation -- 2.1.3.Peroxide and hydroperoxide conversions -- 2.1.4.Norrish type I and II reactions -- 2.1.5.Photo-Fries rearrangement -- 2.1.6.Photo-Fenton -- 2.1.7.Photosubstitution -- 2.1.8.Photoaddition -- 2.1.9.Photoelimination -- 2.1.10.Photodimeri zation -- 2.1.11.Photocondensation -- 2.1.12.Photoisomerization -- 2.2.Photochemical reactivity and quantum yield -- 2.3.Excitation of excited state -- 2.4.Parameters of photochemical reactions -- 2.6.Quenchers and photosensitizers -- References -- 3.1.Radiation -- 3.1.1.The source -- 3.1.2.Solar radiative emission -- 3.1.3.Effect of orbital variations on energy supply -- 3.1.4.Interplanetary and near Earth space -- 3.1.5.Stratosphere -- 3.1.6.Troposphere -- 3.2.Temperature -- 3.3.Water -- 3.4.Atmosphere composition -- 3.5.Pollutants -- 3.5.1.Nitrogen compounds -- 3.5.2.Oxygen species -- 3.5.3.Hydrogen species -- 3.5.4.Carbon oxides -- 3.5.5.Sulfur-containing components -- 3.5.6.Chlorine-containing components -- 3.5.7.Particulate materials -- 3.6.Biological substances -- 3.7.Water pollutants -- 3.8.Stress -- 3.9.Cooperative action of different parameters -- References -- 4.1.Radiation -- 4.1.1.Measuring equipment and methods of measurement -- 4.1.2.Standards -- 4.2.Sunshine duration -- 4.3.Temperature -- 4.4.Relative humidity -- 4.5.Time of wetness -- 4.5.Rain -- 4.6.Pollutants -- 4.6.1.Carbon dioxide -- 4.6.2.Particulate matter -- 4.6.3.Sulfur dioxide -- 4.6.4.Nitrogen oxides -- 4.6.5.Carbon monoxide -- 4.6.6.Ozone -- References -- 5.1.Introduction -- 5.2.Radiation -- 5.3.Sunshine duration -- 5.4.Temperature -- 5.5.Precipitation -- 5.6.Relative humidity -- 5.7.Wetness time -- 5.8.Pollutants -- 5.9.Surface soiling -- References -- 6.1.Introduction -- 6.2.Climatic conditions and degradation rate -- 6.3.Variability of weather conditions and its impact on the strategy in outdoor exposures -- 6.4.Influence of specimen properties -- 6.5.Typical methods of outdoor exposure -- 6.5.1.Exposure sites -- 6.5.2.Exposure racks -- 6.5.3.Exposure of products and components -- 6.6.Other parameters of exposure -- 6.7.Relevant standards -- References -- 7.1.Introduction -- 7.2.Light sources -- 7.3.Filters -- 7.4.Radiation: delivery, monitoring and control -- 7.5.Temperature control -- 7.6.Humidity control -- 7.7.Specimen spraying -- 7.8.Specimen racks and holders -- 7.9.Weathering equipment -- 7.10.Correlation between different devices -- 7.11.Pollutants -- 7.12.Precision of studies -- References -- References -- References -- References -- References -- 12.1.Mass loss -- 12.2.Depth of degradation -- 12.3.Mechanical properties -- 12.4.Changes of color and optical properties -- 12.5.Surface changes -- 12.6.Molecular weight -- 12.7.Chemical composition of surface and bulk -- 12.8.Morphology and structure of surface layers -- 12.9.Glass transition temperature -- 12.10.Self-healing -- References -- 13.1.Visual evaluation -- 13.2.Microscopy -- 13.3.Imaging techniques -- 13.4.Gloss -- 13.5.Color changes -- 13.6.Visible spectrophotometry -- 13.7.UV spectrophotometry -- 13.8.Infrared spectrophotometry -- 13.9.Near infrared spectroscopy -- 13.10.Raman spectroscopy -- 13.11.Nuclear magnetic resonance -- 13.12.Electron spin resonance -- 13.13.Mass spectrometry -- 13.14.Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy -- 13.15.Chemiluminescence, fluorescence, and phosphorescence -- 13.16.Atomic absorption spectroscopy -- 13.17.WAXS and SAXS -- 13.18.X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, XPS -- 13.19.X-ray microtomography -- 13.20.Mass change -- 13.21.Density -- 13.22.Contact angle -- 13.23.Diffusion of gases and water transport in polymers -- 13.24.Electrical properties -- 13.25.Ultrasonic measurements -- 13.26.Thermal analysis -- 13.27.Rheological properties of materials -- 13.28.Other physical parameters -- 13.29.Tensile strength -- 13.30.Elongation -- 13.31.Flexural strength -- 13.32.Impact strength -- 13.33.Creep and constant strain tests -- 13.34.Residual stress -- 13.35.Scratch and mar resistance -- 13.36.Other mechanical properties -- 13.37.Surface roughness -- 13.38.Molecular weight -- 13.39.Gas and liquid chromatography -- 13.40.Titrimetry -- 13.41.Dehydrochlorination rate -- 13.42.Gel fraction -- 13.43.Oxygen uptake -- 13.44.Water absorption, porosity -- 13.45.Microorganism growth test -- 13.46.Environmental stress cracking resistance -- References -- 14.1.Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, ABS -- 14.2.Acrylonitrile styrene acrylate, ASA -- 14.3.Alkyd resins -- 14.4.Acrylic resins -- 14.5.Cellulose -- 14.6.Chitosan -- 14.7.Epoxy resins -- 14.8.Ethylene propylene rubber, EPR -- 14.9.Ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer, EVAc -- 14.10.Ethylene propylene diene monomer, EPDM -- 14.11.Fluoropolymers -- 14.12.Melamine resins -- 14.13.Phenoxy resins -- 14.14.Polyacrylamide -- 14.15.Polyacrylonitrile -- 14.16.Polyamides -- 14.17.Polyaniline -- 14.18.Polycarbonates -- 14.19.Polyesters -- 14.20.Polyethylene -- 14.21.Polyethylene, chlorinated -- 14.22.Poly(ethylene glycol) -- 14.23.Polyfluorene -- 14.24.Polyamides -- 14.25.Poly(lactic acid) -- 14.26.Polymethylmethacrylate -- 14.27.Polyoxyethylene -- 14.28.Polyoxymethylene -- 14.29.Poly(phenylene oxide) -- 14.30.Poly(phenylene sulfide) -- 14.31.Poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide) -- 14.32.Poly(p-phenylene vinylene) -- 14.33.Polypropylene -- 14.34.Polystyrenes -- 14.35.Polysulfones -- 14.36.Polytetrafluoroethylene -- 14.37.Polythiophene -- 14.38.Polyurethanes -- 14.39.Polyvinylalcohol -- 14.40.Polyvinylchloride -- 14.41.Poly(vinylidene fluoride) -- 14.42.Poly(vinyl methyl ether) -- 14.43.Styrene acrylonitrile copolymer -- 14.44.Silicones -- 14.45.Polymer blends -- 14.46.Rubbers -- 14.46.1.Natural rubber -- 14.46.1.Polybutadiene -- 14.46.2.Polychloroprene -- 14.46.3.Polyisoprene -- 14.46.4.Polyisobutylene -- 14.46.5.Styrene butadiene rubber -- 14.46.6.Styrene butadiene styrene rubber -- References -- 15.1.Fillers and reinforcing fibers -- 15.2.Pigments -- 15.3.Plasticizers -- 15.4.Solvents and diluents -- 15.5.Flame retardants -- 15.6.Impact modifiers -- 15.7.Thermal stabilizers -- 15.8.Antioxidants -- 15.9.Antimicrobial additives -- 15.10.Curatives, crosslinkers, initiators -- 15.11.Catalysts -- 15.12.Compatibilizer -- 15.12.Impurities -- 15.13.Summary -- References -- 16.1.Adhesives -- 16.2.Aerospace -- 16.3.Agriculture -- 16.4.Appliances -- 16.5.Automotive parts -- 16.6.Automotive coatings -- 16.7.Coated fabrics -- 16.8.Coil coated materials -- 16.9.Composites -- 16.10.Concrete -- 16.11.Conservation -- 16.12.Construction materials -- 16.13.Cosmetics -- 16.14.Dental materials -- 16.15.Electronics and electrical materials -- 16.16.Environmental pollutants -- 16.17.Foams -- 16.18.Food -- 16.19.Gel coats -- 16.20.Geosynthetics -- 16.21.Glass and glazing materials -- 16.22.Greenhouse film -- 16.23.Hair -- 16.24.Laminates -- 16.25.Medical equipment and supplies -- 16.26.Military applications -- 16.27.Molded materials -- 16.28.Packaging materials -- 16.28.1.Bottles -- 16.28.2.Containers -- 16.28.3.Crates and trays -- 16.28.4.Films -- 16.29.Paints and coatings -- 16.30.Pavements -- 16.31.Pharmaceutical products -- 16.32.Pipes and tubing -- 16.33.Pulp and paper -- 16.34.Roofing materials -- 16.35.Sealants -- 16.36.Sheet -- 16.37.Siding -- 16.38.Solar cells and collectors -- 16.39.Textiles -- 16.40.Windows -- 16.41.Wire and cable -- 16.42.Wood -- References -- 17.1.Effect of degradation on recycling -- 17.2.Re-stabilization of material for recycling -- 17.3.Multilayer materials -- 17.4.Removable paint -- 17.5.Chemical recycling -- References -- 18.1.Definitions -- 18.2.Parameters controlling ESC -- 18.2.1.Material composition -- 18.2.2.Morphology and dimensions -- 18.2.3.Processing and performance conditions -- 18.2.4.Solubility parameters of solvents and polymers -- 18.2.5.Diffusion -- 18.2.6.Load and internal stress -- 18.2.7.Time -- 18.2.8.Temperature -- 18.3.Mechanisms of environmental stress cracking -- 18.4.Kinetics of environmental stress cracking -- 18.5.Effect of ESC on material durability -- 18.6.Methods of testing -- References -- References -- References
Summary The fifth edition of this seminal work provides comprehensive and current information on material weathering for over forty families of polymers. It presents discussions on formulating mechanisms of degradation, effect of thermal processes, present characteristic changes in properties, and tables of available numerical data. This single source reference will dramatically reduce the time used searching for answers in many different sources. This book is an important reference monograph for those involved in studying material durability, producing materials for outdoor use and actinic exposure, research chemists in the photochemistry field, chemists and material scientists designing new materials, users of manufactured products, those who control the quality of manufactured products, and students who want to apply their knowledge to real materials
Bibliography Includes bibliographical references and index
Subject Environmental testing.
Materials -- Biodegradation -- Handbooks, manuals, etc.
Materials -- Deterioration -- Handbooks, manuals, etc.
Polymers -- Biodegradation.
Polymers -- Deterioration.
Genre/Form Handbooks and manuals.
Form Electronic book
ISBN 1895198623 (electronic bk.)
1895198747
9781895198621 (electronic bk.)
9781895198744